• 4 kcal/g
• Burst of protein synthesis in the liverafter a protein-rich meal.
• Mostly in muscles, but also in most tissues.
• 9 kcal/g
• Fat accumulates without water attached. Givesfats a higherenergy density.
• Stored mostlyin adipose, but also in other tissue and blood as triglycerides.
• NEEDS oxygen to be metabolized
• Does not produce ATP as fast as carbohydrates
• Usuallyuses a kind of protein carrier
• 4 kcal/g
• Most tissues preferred energytype.
• Maintains blood glucose which is stored as glycogenin muscle and liver
• Very small amount in the blood.
• Glucose can be used as energyin anaerobic or aerobic respiration.
• QUICKLYproduces ATP
• Not very much isstored in the body.
Digestion and absorption
• Main function of our gastrointestinal tract digests and absorbs nutrients from foods
• Small intestine is the main site of fat absorption, sugar, amino acids, vitaminsand mineral
• Intestinal cells package some lipidsand lipidsoluble vitaminsinto CHYLOMICRONS. These are
processed by lymphaticsystem which eventuallydeliversthem to the blood as dietary
• Very regulated, especiallycompared to free fatty acids which range widely.
• Many cells and tissues use glucose and cannot reallyuse free fatty acids as a fuel source.
• Fluid balance. Large concentration of glucose attracts water. In diabetes, dehydration results
because the high amount of glucose in blood takes all the water out of