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Energy Distribution System.pdf

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BIOL 1080
Jim Kirkland

Energy Distribution February-25-14 7:44 PM Proteins: • 4 kcal/g • Burst of protein synthesis in the liverafter a protein-rich meal. • Mostly in muscles, but also in most tissues. Fats: • 9 kcal/g • Fat accumulates without water attached. Givesfats a higherenergy density. • Stored mostlyin adipose, but also in other tissue and blood as triglycerides. • NEEDS oxygen to be metabolized • Does not produce ATP as fast as carbohydrates • Usuallyuses a kind of protein carrier Carbohydrates • 4 kcal/g • Most tissues preferred energytype. • Maintains blood glucose which is stored as glycogenin muscle and liver • Very small amount in the blood. • Glucose can be used as energyin anaerobic or aerobic respiration. • QUICKLYproduces ATP • Not very much isstored in the body. Digestion and absorption • Main function of our gastrointestinal tract digests and absorbs nutrients from foods • Small intestine is the main site of fat absorption, sugar, amino acids, vitaminsand mineral absorptions • Intestinal cells package some lipidsand lipidsoluble vitaminsinto CHYLOMICRONS. These are processed by lymphaticsystem which eventuallydeliversthem to the blood as dietary TRIGLYCERIDES. MaintainingBlood Glucose • Very regulated, especiallycompared to free fatty acids which range widely. • Many cells and tissues use glucose and cannot reallyuse free fatty acids as a fuel source. • Fluid balance. Large concentration of glucose attracts water. In diabetes, dehydration results because the high amount of glucose in blood takes all the water out of
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