BIOL 1080 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-3a(ii): Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Exocytosis, Safe Sex

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11 Feb 2015
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BIOL*1080 Midterm Review
Chapter 1a
7 Basic Characteristics of all Living Things
1) Contain nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids
-DNA especially important; make copies of themselves, enables reproduction
2) Composed of cells
-All cells come from pre-existing cells
3) Grow and reproduce
4) Use energy and raw materials
-Metabolism: refers to all chemical reactions that occur within the cells of living things
-Organisms extract energy from nutrients and transform it to do work
5) Respond to their environment
-Must first detect a stimulus (using sensory organs) and then react
-Your nervous system processes sensory input, skeletal and muscular systems enable you to respond
6) Maintain homeostasis
-Homeostasis: constant and self-correcting internal environment of a living organism
7) Populations of living things evolve and have adaptive traits
-Members of a population of reproducing organisms possessing beneficial genetic traits will survive and
reproduce better than those without them (natural selection)
-Adaptive traits: help it survive and reproduce in it's natural environment
Levels of Organization
-Molecule: chemical components of the cell
-Cell: smallest unit of life
-Tissue: group of similar cells that preform the same function
-Organ: structure with 2+ tissues working together to perform a function
-Organ System: 2+ organs working together to perform a function (11 in humans)
-Individual: a single organism
-Population: individuals of the same species in an area
-Community: all the species in an ecosystem that can interact
-Ecosystem: a community and it's physical environment (viewed as being relatively self-contained)
-Biosphere: the part of the earth that supports life
Theory: a well-supported and wide-ranging explanation of some aspect of the physical universe
-Cannot be tested by a single experiment, emerges from many observations, hypotheses
-Leads to additional predictions and continued experimentation
Statistical Significance: a measure of the possibility that the results were due to change
-Probabilities < 5% (p < 0.05) are generally acceptable
-The lower the number, the more confidence we have in the accuracy of the results
-Used by scientists to develop conclusions
Clinical Trial: testing a new drug or treatment on humans
-All participants are volunteers
-Phase 1: drug is screened for safety on <100 healthy people (determines side effects)
-Phase 2: a few hundred people with the target disease are given the drug to see if it works for it's intended
purpose
-Phase 3: compare the new drug with alternative treatments
Placebo: taken by the control group, a non drug substance made to look like the drug being tested
-Experimental group receives the drug under consideration
Informed Consent: lists all possible fearful effects of the drug or treatment and must be signed before a person can
take part in a study
-Participants must be mentally capable of understanding the treatment and risks
Epidemiological Studies: researchers look at patterns that occur within large populations
-Look for a correlation between the variable of interest and it's suspected effects
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Chapter 1d
11 Major Organ Systems of the Body
1) Cardiovascular System
-Transports nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, heat, hormones, immune cells and antibodies
-Regulates pH
2) Digestive System
-Physical and chemical breakdown of food
-Absorbs, processes, stores food
3) Endocrine System
-Regulates and integrates body functions via hormones
4) Integumentary System
-Protects underlying tissues
-Provides skin sensation
-Helps regulate body temperature
-Synthesizes vitamin D
5) Lymphatic System
-Returns tissue fluids to bloodstream
-Protects against infection and disease
6) Muscular System
-Moves body and maintains posture
-Internal transport of fluids
-Generation of heat
7) Nervous System
-Regulates and integrates body functions via neurons
8) Reproductive System
-Produces and secretes hormones
-Produces and releases egg and sperm cells
-Houses embryo/fetus (female only)
9) Respiratory System
-Exchanges respiratory gases with the environment
10) Skeletal System
-Attachment for muscles
-Protects organs
-Stores calcium and phosphorus
-Produces blood cells
11) Urinary System
-Maintains constant internal environment through the excretion of nitrogenous waste
Homeostasis
-Needed to remain healthy, the body must constantly adjust its functioning in response of changes in the internal
and external environment
-Our organ systems interacts to maintain relatively stable conditions within
-Body processes must shift to counteract the variation in internal conditions
-Homeostatic mechanisms don’t maintain absolute internal constancy, but they do damped fluctuations around a
set point to keep internal conditions within a certain range (not a static state, but a dynamic one)
-Illness can result if homeostasis fails
-Ex. diabetes: pancreas doesn’t produce enough of the hormone insulin or body cells are unable to use insulin
-Insulin: lowers the blood level of glucose, returning it to a desirable value after digesting a meal
-Without insulin, blood glucose rises to a point that cause damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels
-Nervous and endocrine systems are the two primary means of communication that homeostasis depends on
-Endocrine system produces hormones, which brings about slower and longer-lasting responses to change
-Maintained mainly through negative feedback mechanisms
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Negative Feedback Mechanisms
-Corrective measures that slow or reverse a variation from the normal value of a factor and return it to it's
normal value, where the corrective measures cease (the normal value is the feedback that turns off the response)
-Positive Feedback Mechanism: causes a change that promotes continued change in the same direction
-Homeostatic mechanisms have 3 components
1) A receptor (a sensor that monitors environment) detects change and sends that information to the control
center
2) A control center determines the factor’s set point (the level or range that is normal for the factor in question),
integrates information coming from the receptors and selects an appropriate response
-Usually located in the brain
3) An effector (often a muscle or gland) carries out the selected response
Homeostatic Control of Blood Calcium
-Stable blood calcium levels are important to many physiological processes
-Calcitonin is a hormone from the thyroid gland that lowers blood calcium levels
-Parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands raises blood calcium levels
Homeostatic Control of Core Body Temperature
-Receptors: thermoreceptors (found in skin and deep within body)
-Control Center: hypothalamus
-Set point: 37°C
-Effectors: sweat glands, blood vessels in the skin, and skeletal muscles
-Increase in temperature: blood vessels widen (dilate), sweat glands increase activity, arrector pili muscles
attached to hair follicles relax or behavioural responses (ex. removing a sweater, finding shade)
-Decrease in temperature: blood vessels contract, skeletal muscles repeatedly contract causing shivering,
arrector pili muscles attached to hair follicles contract (piloerection—more effective in animals)
-Even small deviations in temperature have dramatic effects on metabolism
-Hyperthermia: occurs when the mechanisms for lowering temperatures fail
-AKA heat stroke
-Symptoms: dizziness, confusion, unconsciousness
-> 42°C, heartbeat becomes irregular, oxygen levels in the blood drop, liver ceases to function
-Hypothermia: occurs when the mechanisms for increases temperatures fail (<35°C)
-At 33°C: people become giddy and confused at first then loose consciousness
-By 30°C: blood vessels are completely constricted and temperature-regulating mechanisms shut down
-In severe cases, dialysis machines may be used to artificially warm the blood and pump it back into the body
Tissue: a group of cells of similar type that work together to perform a specific function
-4 types:
-Epithelial (covers body surfaces, lines body cavities and organs, forms glands), connective (serves as a storage
site for fat, important for immunity, provides protection and support for the body and it's organs), muscle
(responsible for body and substance movement) and nervous (conducts nerve impulses)
Chapter 2a
Biomedical Model of Illness
-A symptom of illness is considered to have an underlying pathology (disease) that will be cured through medical
intervention
-The assumption is that removal of the pathology will lead to restored health
-Has been described as reductionist (i.e. the basic idea that mind, matter (body) and human behaviour can all be
reduced to, and explained at, the level of cells, neural activity or biochemical activity
-Ignores evidence that different people second in different ways to the same underlying disease because of
differences in personality, cognition, social support or cultural beliefs
-Little room for subjectivity
Biopsychosocial Model of Illness
-Closer to what we perceive as the truth today
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