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BIOL 1090 Textbook Lec 1-2

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BIOL 1090
Marc Coppolino

11 y Robert Hooke discovered cells y Anton van leeuwenhoek saw bacteria y Schleiden plants were made ofcells plant embryo arose from a single cell y Schwann report on the cellular basis of animal life animal and plant cells have similar structures y Schwann proposed two components of cell theory All organisms are composed of one or more cellsThe cell is the basic unit of life y Origin of cell ideas were incorrect could arise from noncellular organisms y Virchow third point of cell theoryCells can arise only by division from a preexisting12 y Life is the basic property of cells and cells are the smallest unit of life y Whole cells can be removed from a plantanimal and cultured in a lab to grow reproduce y Death can also be the most basic property of lifeonly a living thing faces that prospect y Cells may die by suicide no longer needed cells are eliminated before becoming a risk of becoming cancerous y First culture of human cells began by George and Martha Gey y HeLa from malignant tumourDescendants from first cell sample still used todayy HeLa can be cultured indefinitely as long as conditions are favourabley In vitro in culture y Cells are highly complex and organized y Dna replication occurs with an error rate of one mistake every 10 million nucleotides with most corrected y Each type of cell has a consistent composition of macromolecules y Ex epithelial cells that line the intestine y Connect like bricks microvilliproject filaments have large numbers of mitochondria etc y Evolution has moved slowly cats and humans different features but cells and organelles that make up their tissues y Ex ATPsynthesizing enzyme are virtually identical but found in diverse structures such as humans snails yeast trees y Basic biological processes are also similarsynthesis of proteins conservation of chemical energy membrane construction y Organisms built according to information encoded in genes
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