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Unit 6.docx

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BIOL 1500
Marie Therese Rush

Unit 6: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Human Diet Nutrients Nutrients- components of food that we require for maintenance of life and for growth - atoms other than carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that must be obtained from a plant’s environment for photosynthesis to occur Macronutrients Macronutrients-required in large amounts in our diet and include water, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats Water and Nutrition: -survival without water is limited to just a few days -water helps disperse nutrients, dissolve and eliminate waste products of digestion, helps maintain blood pressure and is involved in virtually all cellular activities -dehydration- decrease below the body’s required water level -can lead to muscle cramps, fatigue, headaches, dizziness, nausea, confusion, and increased heart rate -severe dehydration can result in hallucinations, heat stroke, and death -sweating helps maintain body temperature, when water is low, sweating decreases, the body temperature can rise to harmful level -a 3% loss in water can cause a 10% reduction in your strength and an 8% reduction in your speed -textbook suggests 1.5 liters of water is sufficient for average a(quantity influenced by your body size, level and intensity of exercise, envir(climateillnesses, and whether you are pregnant or not) -body is 65 to 75% water Carbohydrates as Nutrients: Carbohydrates -sugars which are the main source of energy for cells (fuel for your body) -bread, cereal, rice, pasta, fruits, vegetables are all rich in sugars called carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates- made up of single sugar molecules, found in processed foods and sweets (quickly digested and easily absorbed by body, leaving you soon hungry after meal) -food that’s undergone extensive refinement and in doing so has been stripped of much of its nutritive value Complex carbohydrates- composed of several sugar molecules joined together, thus storing more energy (takes longer to digest as they’re harder to break down, feel full longer after meal) -vegetables, breads, legumes, pasta -nutritionists agree most of carbohydrates in healthful diet should be complex Proteins as Nutrients: Proteins- (thought of as building blocks for your muscles) -protein rich food: beef, poultry, fish, beans, tofu, seeds, eggs, nuts, lentils, and dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese) -excess protein is stored as fat, so if you eat too much you will increase body fat -too much protein can result in bone loss and kidney damage Complete proteins- dietary proteins that contain all the essential amino acids Amino acids- make up proteins, bonded to each other in an infinite variety of combinations to produce a diverse array of proteins with many different functions -there are 20 different amino acids, each with a unique structure and chemical composition Essential amino acids- 8 amino acids that humans cannot synthesize and thus must be Fats Nutrients: Fats (lipids)- concentrated source of energy for your cells and store more energy than do carbohydrates and proteins (energy is stored in the chemical bonds of the fat molecule) -main sources of fat: meat, dairy products, vegetable oils, nuts -fats good because it supplies us with energy and essential fatty acids Flaxseeds: Whole flaxseeds (most commonly found in food products, are not easily digested by your body-so they act as a laxative) -to benefit from fatty acids in flaxseed you will need to eat bruised, cracked, ground, or milled seed, or the seed oil. Essential fatty acids- acids that animals cannot synthesize and must be obtained from the diet Saturated fat-(healthy fatwhen carbons of fatty acid are bound to as many hydrogens as possible -usually come from plant sources- olives, canola, flaxseed, nuts, fish oils Unsaturated fat- when there are carbon-to-carbon bonds, the fat is not saturated in hydrogens Polyunsaturated- fat that contains many unsaturated carbons Hydrogenation- adding hydrogen gas under pressure to make liquid oils more solid (increases level of saturation of a fat) Trans fats- produced by incomplete hydrogenation, which changes structure of fatty acid -omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are particularly good at reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease Micronutrients Micronutrients-are required in trace amounts, such as vitamins and minerals (not destroyed by body during use nor burned for energy) Vitamins: Vitamins- are organic substances, most of which body cannot synthesize (must get from foods) -there are 13 essential vitamins that you must get from your food to stay healthy (required in only tiny amounts) -act as coenzymes, meaning they help enzymes complete chemical reactions in your body. -many vitamins are water soluble (boiling causes them to each into water) which is why fresh vegetables are more nutritious than cooked ones Vitamin Sources Functions Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins: -small organic molecules -will dissolve in water -cannot be synthesized by body -supplements packaged as pressed tablets Thiamin Pork, whole grains, leafy green vegetables (B1) Riboflavin Milk, whole grains, leafy green vegetables (B2) Folic acid Dark green vegetables, nuts, legumes (dried beans, peas, lentils), whole grains Required component of many B12 Chicken, fish, red meat, diary enzymes B 6 Red meat, poultry, fish, spinach, potatoes, and tomatoes Pantotheni Meat, vegetables, grains c acid Biotin Legumes, egg yolk C Citrus fruits, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli, cabbage, green pepper Niacin (B3) Nuts, leafy green vegetables, potatoes Fat-soluble vitamins: -small organic molecules -will to dissolve in water -cannot be synthesized by body (except vitamin D) -supplements packaged as oil gel caps Functions Effects of Deficiency A Leafy green and yellow vegetables, liver, egg Component of Night yolk eye pigment blindness, scaly skin, skin sores, and blindness D Milk, egg yolk Helps calcium Bone be absorbed deformities and increases bone growth E Dark green vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole Required Neutral tube grains component of defects, many enzyme anemia, gastrointestinal problems K Leafy green vegetables, cabbage, cauliflower Helps blood Bruising, clot abnormal clotting and severe bleeding Minerals: Minerals- substances that do not contain carbon but are essential for many cell functions -since they lack carbon, minerals are said to be inorganic -important for proper fluid balance, in muscle contraction and conduction of nerve impulses and for building bones and teeth -examples: calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur -are water soluble -not synthesized in body and must be supplied through your diet Minerals: -will dissolve in water -inorganic elements (do not contain carbon) -cannot be synthesized by body -supplements packaged as pressed tables Mineral Sources Functions Effects of Effects of Excess Deficiency Calcium Milk, cheese, dark Bione strength, Stunted growth Kidney stones green vegetables, blood clotting legums Chloride Table salt, Formation of Muscle cramps, High blood presure processed foods stomach acid reduced appetite, poor growth Magnesium Whole grains, Required Muscle cramps Neurological leafy green component of disturbances vegetables, many enzymes legumes, diary, nuts Phosphorus Dairy, red meat, Bione and tooth Weakness, bone Impaired ability to poultry, grains formation damage absorb nutrients Potassium Meats, fruits,
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