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BIOL 1500
Marie Therese Rush

Unit 5:Genetic Engineering Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression -scientists can change amount of protein a gene produces Regulating gene expression- regulating amount of protein produced by cell Recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) (patented by Monsanto Corporationone of first examples of controlling gene expressions—protein that has been made by genetically engineered bacteria -can increase milk production in cows --use of rBGH for milk production still very controversial (claims(hypothesesthat rBGH may affect both human health and the health of cows) Nucleotide: building blocks for DNA and RNA -- contains a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base From Gene to Protein: protein synthesis- involves using instructions carried by gene to build particular protein -genes don’t build proteins directl(carry instructions that dictate how protein should be built) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)- molecule that stores information required for making all of the proteins the cell needs, and through this molecule characteristics are passed from one generation to another (molecule of heredity) -like a complete instruction manual for making all parts of an organism -found in cells, looks like a twisted rope ladder, and is referred to as "genetic material". Genetic: an adjective meaning "of genes or genetics." Genetics is the study of the way characteristics are passed from one generation to another. gene- segment along a DNA molecule that carries the instructions for a specific structure or genetic trait -codes for or contains the instructions for a specific protein. ribonucleic acid (RNA)- contains info used to synthesize proteins(single-stranded rather than double- stranded) Protein: a substance found in cells that, depending on the type, can form structures, transport materials, or act as an enzyme (a helper in chemical reactions) -coded for by genes and made of amino acids. Amino acid: the building blocks for proteins -is a monomer subunit of a protein containing an amino, a carboxyl, and a unique side group. Cell: the basic unit of life -fundamental building-block unit for organisms(cells form tissues, tissues form organs, organs combine to make organisms or living creatures) -separated from its environment by a membrane and often a thin wall -microscopic in size Protein synthesis involves two steps: 1. transcription- copying of DNA gene into RNA (producing the copy of the required gene) -occurs in nucleus of eukaryotic cells when RNA polymerase enzyme binds to promoter locate at the start site of a gene and makes an mRNA that is complementary to the DNA gene 2. translation – second step in moving from gene to protein translation requires mRNA be used to produce actual protein for which gene encodes -occurs in cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and involves mRNA, ribosomes, and transfer RNA (tRNA)\ -messenger RNA carries amino acids, which bin to triplet nucleotide sequences on the mRNA called codon -particular tRNA carries specific amino acid -each tRNA has its unique anticodon that binds the codon and carries instructions for its particular amino Producing Recombinant Proteins (growth hormone) -first step in production of rBGH protein is to transfer BGH gene from nucleus of cow cell into bacterial cell Bacteria- single-celled prokaryotes that copy themselves rapidly, thrive in laboratory if they are allowed to grow in liquid broth containing nutrients necessary for survival -bacteria with BGH gene produce millions of copies of this gene and its protein product cloning-making copies of a gene or organism that are genetically identical Cloning a Gene using Bacteria: Step 1: Remove gene from cow chromosome Step 2: Insert the BGH gene into the bacterial plasmid Plasmid- circular piece of bacterial DNA that normally exists separate from bacterial chromosome and can make copies of itself Step 3: Insert the recombinant plasmid into a bacterial cell Generally recognized as safe (GRAS)- manufacture has obtained FDA approval for new foods Genetic Engineers Genetic engineers scientists who manipulate genes (must obtain a postgraduate degree) -in Canada, many scientists first obtain their Masters of Science which takes about two years and usually involves a few courses and an independent research project -Doctor of Philosophy program is similar, but usually lasts four years and involves much more d
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