BIOL 1500 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Adaptationism, Common Descent, Biogeography

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UNIT 3 SUMMARY TABLE
Terms and Concepts Explanation Example
Adaptation Trait that is favoured by
natural selection and
increases an individuals
fitness in a particular
environment
Adaptationist programme Proposes that every trait an
organism has is adaptable in
some way
Looks at the function of
each trait (why ducks have
webbed feet)
Alfred Russel Wallace Co founder of the ideas of
natural selection along with
Darwin, published his ideas
before Darwin did
Allele Alternate versions of the
same gene, produced by
mutations
The dominance of one eye
colour versus another
Anatomical homology Comparison of anatomy of
several related species can
reveal similarities in
structure, despite
differences in function
Biogeography Distribution of organisms
on earth related to
evolutionary history such
that a group of organisms in
one geographic location is
more closely related than
groups in different locations
Biological classification
system
Proposed by Linnaeus, field
of science attempting to
organize biodiversity into
discrete, logical categories
Domain, kingdom, phylum,
class, order, family, genus
and species
Biological population Individuals of the same
species that live and breed
in the same geographic area
Charles Darwin Prominent figure in the field
of evolution, proposed that
species must be adaptable in
order to survive and those
who had adaptable traits
passed those on to their
offspring.
Authored “the origin of
species”
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