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BIOL 2400 (32)
Chapter 4

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University of Guelph
BIOL 2400
Cortland Griswold

Chapter 4 Notes: - Evolutionary biologists exclaims that the phylogenetic tree represent the splitting as a single branch dividing into two or more new branches. Those new branches can, in time, split into new ones well. - The number of extinct species out numbers the number of living species Phylogeny: A visual representation of the evolutionary history of populations, genes, or species. Tips: Terminal end of an evolutionary tree, representing species, molecules, or populations being compared. Branches: Lineages evolving through time btwn successive speciation events Node: A point in the phylogeny where a linege splits (a speciation event). Internal nodes: Nodes within a phylogeny representing ancestral populations or species. Clade: An organism and all of its descendants. Cladogram, where the branches in a phylogenetic tree do not precisely measure the period of time it took btwn speciation events; but do offer some timing. Monophyletic: Term used to describe a group of organisms that form a clade - Linn
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