Chapter 4 Notes:
- Evolutionary biologists exclaims that the phylogenetic tree represent the splitting as a single branch
dividing into two or more new branches. Those new branches can, in time, split into new ones well.
- The number of extinct species out numbers the number of living species
Phylogeny: A visual representation of the evolutionary history of populations, genes, or species.
Tips: Terminal end of an evolutionary tree, representing species, molecules, or populations being
Branches: Lineages evolving through time btwn successive speciation events
Node: A point in the phylogeny where a linege splits (a speciation event).
Internal nodes: Nodes within a phylogeny representing ancestral populations or species.
Clade: An organism and all of its descendants.
Cladogram, where the branches in a phylogenetic tree do not precisely measure the period of time it
took btwn speciation events; but do offer some timing.
Monophyletic: Term used to describe a group of organisms that form a clade