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Unit 7 & 8 Textbook Readings.docx

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BIOL 2400
Cortland Griswold

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Chapter 11 pg 329354Evolution of SexWhy SexSex is the combining and mixing of chromosomes during the formation of offspringoInvolves 2 main processesMeiosishalves the number of chromosomes during gamete formationFertilizationrestores the original chromosome number as two gametes fuse to form a zygoteReproductionThe formation of new individual organisms offspringHermaphroditesIndividuals that produce both male and female gametesoSelffertilizationthe 2 gametes fused in fertilization come from the same individualoStill a form of sexual reproduction because theres meiosis and fertilization but yields offspring that are lacking genetic variationTwofold Cost of SexAsexual lineages multiply faster than sexual lineages because all progenyare capable of producing offspring In sexual lineages half of theoffspring are males who cannot themselves produce offspring Thiseffectively halves the rate of replication of sexual speciesConsequences of Sexual ReproductionTable 111 pg 333Why is sex common thenoThe benefit of sex as a way for parents to rapidly generate novel genotypes in their offspring allowing for quick adaptation to their environmentMullers RatchetThe process by which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate deleterious mutations in an irreversible mannerGenetic LoadThe burden imposed by the accumulation of deleterious mutationsThe Red Queen Effect Running in Place
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