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Chapter 1-3

BIOM 2000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-3: Small Intestine, Coldwater Fish, Multinucleate

Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BIOM 2000
Idont Remember

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Human concepts in physiology- Reading notes September 8,
Chapter 1: The Human Body, An Orientation
Lecture 1 (September 5, 2014)
Necessary life functions-
- Maintaining boundaries
(living organisms) inside and outside must be distinct
Every cell is surrounded by an external membrane that contains its contents and
allows needed substances in while generally preventing entry of potentially
damaging or unnecessary substances
Whole body is enclosed by skin
Integumentary system protects internal organisms from drying out, from bacteria,
and from damaging effects of heat, sunlight and an unbelievable number of
chemical substances in the external environment
- Movement
All activities promoted by the muscular system
Skeletal system provides the bones that muscles pull on as they work
Movement is also when blood, foodstuffs, and urine are propelled through
internal organs
- Responsiveness
(or irritability)
The ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and reacting to them
1. Ex. If you touch a stove that’s hot, you immediately pull your hand away
Also occurs inside body
1. Ex. Carbon dioxide in your blood rises to high levels, your breathing rate
speeds up to blow off the excess CO2
Nervous system bears the major responsibility for responsiveness
1. Nerve cells are highly irritable

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2. Rapid communication
All body cells are irritable to a certain extent
- Digestion
The process of breaking down ingested food into simple molecules that can then
be absorbed into the blood.
Nutrient rich blood is then distributed to all body cells
- Metabolism
Refers to all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells
Depend on digestive and respiratory systems to make nutrients and oxygen
available to the blood and on the cardiovascular system to distribute theses
needed substances
It is regulated chiefly by hormones secreted by glands of the endocrine system
- Excretion
Process of removing waste from the body
The body must get rid of the non-useful substances produced during digestion
and metabolism
- Reproduction
Production of offspring
1. Cellular
The original cell divides
Produces two identical daughter cells that may then be used for
body growth or repair
2. Organismal
Making a whole new person or organism
Sperm and eggs
Sperm unites with egg
Fertilized egg forms

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Develops into a baby within the mothers body
- Growth
An increase in size
Accomplished by an increase in the number of cells
Cell constructing activities must occur faster than cell destroying
- Survival needs
1. Body takes in through food
2. Contains chemicals used for energy
3. Carbohydrates (Major energy providing fuel)
4. Proteins and fats are also essential
5. Fats cushion organs and provide reserve fuels
6. Minerals and vitamins are required for the chemical reactions that go on
in cells
1. Human cells can survive for only a few minutes without oxygen
2. 20% of air we breathe
3. Cooperative efforts of respiratory and cardiovascular systems
1. Accounts for 60-80% of body weight
2. Single most abundant chemical substance in the body
Appropriate temperature
1. As body temperature drops below 37degrees metabolic reactions become
slower and slower and finally stop
2. When temp is too high chemical reactions proceed too rapidly and body
proteins begin to break down
Atmospheric pressure
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