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Chapter 10-12

BIOM 2000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10-12: Natural Killer Cell, Intercostal Nerves, Coronary Circulation


Department
Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BIOM 2000
Professor
Idont Remember
Chapter
10-12

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436-453
Chapter 10 – blood
Components of blood-
-Connective tissue
Living blood cells (formed elements) are suspended in plasma (non-living)
-Other connective tissues such as collagen and elastin are not present but
dissolved proteins become visible (as fibrin strands during blood clotting)
Side note: if blood is spun down in a centrifuge the formed elements sink to the bottom
of the vile because they are heavier and plasma rises to the top
-The living blood cells or formed elements consists of:
Majority are red blood cells (used for transport of oxygen and other
nutrients) – erythrocytes
White blood cells used for protection – leukocytes
Platelets that help with clotting
-Hematocrit (RBC) 45%
-White/platelets >1%
-Plasma 55%
Physical characteristics and volume
-Sticky
-Opaque
-Metallic taste
-Colour varies depending on amount of oxygen
Scarlet oxygen rich
Dull red oxygen poor
-Slightly alkaline (basic 7.35/7.45)
-38 degrees Celsius
- Volume in healthy men (5-6 L)
Form “buffy coat” (junction between
plasma and erythrocytes

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Plasma
- Approximately 90% water
- 100 different substances are dissolved in the fluid
Nutrients, salts (electrolytes), respiratory gases, hormones, plasma proteins, and
various wastes and products of cell metabolism
- Plasma proteins- most abundant in plasma
Most plasma proteins are made by the liver
oVariety of functions:
Albumin- acts as a carrier to shuttle certain molecules through the
circulation, is a blood buffer, contributes to the osmotic pressure of
blood, acts to keep water in the bloodstream
Fibrinogen (Clotting proteins)- help stem blood loss when a blood
vessel is injured
Globulins (Antibodies)- help protect the body from pathogens
Not used as food to fuel for body
- Composition of plasma remains relatively constant due to homeostatic mechanisms
- Helps distribute body heat evenly throughout the body
Erythrocytes
- Or red blood cells
- Primary function is to transport oxygen in blood to all cells of the body
- They are anucleate- they lack a nucleus
- Contain very few organelles
- Some are “bags of hemoglobin”
Hemoglobin- iron bearing protein, transports bulk of oxygen that is carried in the
blood. Also binds with a small amount of carbon dioxide
- Do not use up any oxygen that they carry
- Small, flexible cells
Thinner center makes them look like doughnuts when viewed under a
microscope
- Large surface area relative to their volume (ideally suited for gas exchange)

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- 5 million cells per mm3 of blood
- More hemoglobin=more oxygen they will be able to carry
- Each erythrocyte can carry about 1 billion molecules of oxygen
Homeostatic imbalance
- Decrease in oxygen-carrying ability = anemia
Anemia may be the result of
1. Lower than normal number of RBC’s
2. Abnormal or deficient hemoglobin in the RBC’s
oSickle cell anemia- the abnormal hemoglobin formed becomes spiky and
sharp when there is an increase of oxygen use by the body
mainly in African descent
rupture easily and dam up in small blood vessel
leaves victims gasping for air and in pain
oresults from a change in amino acids in 2/4 polypeptide chains
those carrying just one sickling gene have “sickle cell trait
ogenerally don’t display symptoms
excessive or abnormal increase in erythrocytes is polycythemia
omay result from bone marrow cancer
ocauses increased blood viscosity which causes blood to flow sluggishly in
the body
Leukocyte
- far less numerous
- crucial to body defense
- less than 1% of total blood volume
- only complete cells in the blood (contain nuclei and the usual organelles)
- are able to slip in and out of the blood vessels- diapedesis
- they can respond to certain chemicals that diffuse from the damaged cells- positive
chemotaxis
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