BIOM 3040 Chapter Notes -Rorschach Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Unstructured Interview

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
Course
Chapter 4
Clinical Assessment Procedures
May 27, 2008
Reliability and Validity in Assessment
Reliability
Generally, reliability refers to consistency of measurement
Interrater reliability: the degree to which two independent observers or judges agree
Test-retest reliability: measures the extent to which people being observed twice or
taking the same test twice (maybe even several weeks or months apart), score in
generally the same way
oOnly makes sense when the theory assumes that people will not change
appreciably between testing on the variable being measured (ex. IQ)
Alternate-form reliability: using two forms of tests rather than giving the same test
twice, perhaps when there is concern that people will remember their answers from the
first test and aim merely to be consistent
Internal consistency reliability: assesses whether the items are related to one another
(like on an anxiety questionnaire all the questions are related to anxiety)
oThe higher correlation, the better the reliability
Validity
Generally, is related to whether a measure fulfills its intended purpose
Related to validity; unreliable measure will have good validity
Content validity: whether a measure adequately samples the domain of interest
Criterion validity: evaluated by determining whether a measure is associated in an
expected way with some other measure (the criterion)
oAka. Concurrent validity
oThat is actually shows that say depressed people show depressed scores and
not depressed people don’t
oPredictive validity: evaluating the ability of the measure to predict some other
variable that is measured in the future (IQ on future school experience)
Construct validity: relevant when we want to interpret a test as measure of some
characteristic or construct that is not simply defined (like anxiousness or distorted
cognition)
oEvaluated by looking a wide variety of data from multiple scores
oIs an important part of the process of theory testing
Psychological Assessment
Designed to determine cognitive, emotional, personality, and behavioural factors in
psychopathological functioning
Clinical Interviews
The interviewer uses language as the principle mean to finding out about another
Difference from a normal interview: the interviewer’s attention on how the respondent
answers or does not answer the question (attentive to any emotion as well)
They will inquire about the persons childhood history (psychoanatical), current
environmental conditions (behavioural)
The interviewer must obtain the trust of that person
Therapists empathize with their clients in order to get information out
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Clinicians have a vague outline, but they all use different strategies of interviewing
Each clinician develops ways of asking questions with which he or she is comfortable
and that seem to draw out information that will maximum benefit the client
Unstructured interview, so they must rely on intuition and general experience
Reliability for initial clinical interview is probably low (two interview may reach different
conclusions about a client) , also validity is hard to confirm
Structured interviews: one in which the questions are set out in a prescribed fashion
for the interviewer
oStructured Clinical Interview Diagnosis (SCID) for Axis 1 of DSM-IV
Branching interview (client response to one question determines the next
question asked)
Rated on a 3 point scale of severity
Improvement of diagnostic reliability
Psychological Tests
Psychological tests: standardized procedures designed to measure a person’s
performance on a particular task or to assess his or her personality
It yields important information in their own right, such as personality characteristics or
situational determinants of a person’s problems
The same test is administered to many people at different times
Standardization: statistical norms for the test can thereby be established as soon as
sufficient data have been collected
3 types of psychological tests: self-report personality inventories, projective personality
tests, and tests of intelligence
Personality Inventories
oPerson is asked to complete a self-report questionnaire indicating whether
statements assessing habitual tendencies apply to him or her
oMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): an inexpensive means
of detecting psychopathology and detect a number of psychological problems
(multipahic)
MMPI – 2 has several designs to improve validity and acceptability
It has a difference in including minority groups, needless topics and sexist
wording
oThere is a validity scale that is designed to detect deliberately faked responses
oLie scale: a series of statements set a trap for the person who is trying to look
too good (their scores would be viewed with more scepticism)
oProjective Personality Tests: psychological assessment device in which a set
of standard stimuli-inkblots or drawings ambiguous enough to allow variation in
response is presented to the individual (unstructured material, and the
unconscious process will reveal their true attitudes, motivations and modes of
behaviour = projective hypothesis)
oRorschach Inkblot test: best known for its projective techniques (they are
shown 10 inkblots at a time and asked to tell what figures or objects he or she
sees in each of them) there is black, white, greys, red splotches, and 3 pastel
colors
oThematic Apperception Test (TAT): another well known projective test. They
are shown a series of black and white pictures and asked to tell the story
oProjective tests are to reduce the defence mechanisms of repression and get to
the basic cause of distress
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Intelligence Tests
oOriginally Binet constructed a mental test to help a school board predict which
children are in need for help
oAka. IQ test
oIntelligence test: a standardized means of assessing a person’s current mental
ability
oWechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and for children (WISC)
oStandford-Binet test. They are all based on the assumption that a detailed
sample of individuals current intellectual functioning can predict how well he or
she will performing school
oThey are also used to :
In conjunction with achievement tests to diagnose learning disabilities and
identify strength and weakness areas
Help determine whether a person is mentally retarded
Identify intellectually gifted children so that appropriate instruction can be
provided them in school
Neuropsychological evaluations
oThey include language skills, abstract thinking, nonverbal reasoning, visual-
spatial skills, attention and concentration, and speed of processesing
o65% receive between 85-115
oThose with below 70 are 2 standard deviations below the mean of the population
and have significant subaverage intellectual functioning
oThose with above 130 are considered intellectually gifted (2.5% falls in each
extremes)
oThey are highly reliable and have good criterion validity but only measure what
psychologist consider intelligence
Behavioural and Cognitive Assessment
Behavioural and cognitive clinicians use a system that involves the assessment of 4 sets
of variables, SORC
oS (Stimuli): the environmental situation that precede the problem (the situations
that cause the problem)
oO (organismic): physiological and psychological factors assumed to be
operating under the skin (ex. Fatigue caused by alcohol)
oR (responses): determining what behaviour is problematic, the frequency,
intensity and form
oC (consequent): events that appear to be reinforcing or punishing the behaviour
in question
O receives the most attention, C the least
Cognitive and cognitive-behaviour therapists put more emphasis on cognitive events
such as people’s distorted thinking patterns, negative self instructions, irrational
automatic thoughts and beliefs, and schemas
Pearsons and Davidson
o5 components of their approach:
Problem list: includes the difficulties the client is having in various
domains (psychological, interpersonal, occupational, medical, financial,
housing, legal, and leisure). Usually a list is made of these
Diagnosis: diagnoses can lead to initial hypotheses about how to
formulate the case and provide information about possible interventions
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