BUS 2090 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Externals, Albert Bandura, Everytime

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Published on 2 Feb 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Business
Course
BUS 2090
Professor
Chapter 2 Individuals, Groups & Organizations
Personality and Learning
What is Personality?
Personality: The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influence the way a person interacts w/
his environment
A persons personality summarizes their style of deal w/ the world
It consists of a number of dimensions & traits that are determined in a complex way by genetic
predisposition & by learning history
Its relatively stable but can change through learning
Personality and Organizational Behaviour
In the beginning it was believed personality was important factor in many areas of organizational
behaviour such as motivation, attitudes, performance and leadership
After WW2 personality tests were used to select military personal & in 1950s became popular in business
organizations
Dispositional approach
Focuses on a persons dispositions & personality
Says people possess stable traits that influence their attitudes/behaviours
Says people are predisposed to behave a certain way
Situational approach
Says characteristics of the organization setting (rewards/punishments etc.) influence people’s thought,
feelings, attitudes & behaviour
Over years people have debated these approaches in the “person-situation” debate
Researchers say both are important for predicting & understanding behaviour
Interactionist Approach
Says organizational behaviour is a function of both dispositions & the situation
Now the most widely accepted perspective within organizational behaviour
Key component is fit: Manager needs to put the right person into the right job
The 5-Factor Model of Personality
Psychologists have discovered 5 basic dimensions that describe personality
1. Extraversion: Extent to which a person is outgoing or shy
> People high on extraversion tend to be social, outgoing, energetic and joyful
2. Emotional Stability: Degree to which a person has emotional control
People w/ high motional control are self confident & have high self-esteem
People w/ low emotional stability tend to be anxious, hostile, impulsive, insecure and prone to stress
3. Agreeableness: Extent to which a person is friendly & approachable
A more agreeable person is warm, considerate, altruistic, friendly, sympathetic, cooperative etc.
Less agreeable people are cold & aloof & may be inflexible, uncaring & intolerant
4. Conscientiousness: Degree to which a person is responsible & achievement oriented
More conscientious people are dependable & positively motivated, orderly, hard-working etc.
Less conscientious people are irresponsible, lazy and impulsive
5. Openness to Experience: Extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas
More open people are creative/innovative
Less open people favor the status quo
Research Evidence
Big 5 dimensions are related to job performance
Big 5 related to other work behaviours such as attendance at work
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Big 5 related to motivate & job satisfaction
Big 5 related to career search and career success
Locus of Control
Locus of control: A set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external
forces
Externals see the world as unpredictable, and think that luck, fate or powerful people control their destinies
Internals tend to see stronger links between the effort they put into their jobs & the performance level they
achieve
B/c they see themselves as able to control what happens to them, these people are more satisfied w/
their jobs, earn more money & achieve higher organizational positions
Less stress, cope w/ stress better and engage in more career planning
Locus of control influences org. behaviour in a variety of settings
Self-Monitoring
Self-monitoring: The extent to which people regulate & observe how they appear & act in social settings &
relationships
Low self monitors “wear their heart on their sleeve” & aren’t interested in fitting in w/ those around them
High self monitors take great care to observe & control the images they project
Behave somewhat like actors
Show concern for socially appropriate behaviour, tune into social and interpersonal cues
Gravitate toward jobs that require by nature, a degree of role-playing and exercise their self-
presentation skills (e.g. sales, law, PR, politics etc.)
Perform well in jobs that require ability to be flexible & adapt to situations
Tend to be more involved in their jobs, perform at higher level, & more likely to be leaders
Experience more role stress & have less commitment to their organization
May be weak motivators or weak in positions that require “going against the grain”
Self-Esteem
Self-Esteem: The degree to which a person has positive self-evaluation
People w/ high self esteem have favorable self image
Tend to make more fulfilling career decisions
Have higher job satisfaction and job performance
People w/ low self esteem have unfavorable self image
Tend to be uncertain about correctness of their opinions, attitudes & behaviours
Seek social approval from others
Tend to reach badly to negative feedback w. lowers subsequent performance
Behavioural Plasticity Theory
People w/ low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external & social influences than those who have
high self-esteem
Events & people in organizations have impact on beliefs & actions of those w/ low-self-esteem
Recent Developments in Personality & Organizational Behaviour
5 recent personality variables that have been found to be important to organizational behaviour
Positive & Negative Affectivity
Research has found that these are enduring personality characteristics & there might be a genetic &
biological basis to them
Can influence peoples emotions & mood states at work & influence job attitudes & work behaviour
Positive Affectivity: Tendency to view the world & other people & self in positive light
Cheerful, enthusiastic, lively, socialable & energetic
Found to be more creative @ work
Negative Affectivity: Tendency to view the world & other people & self in negative light
Distressed, depressed or unhappy
Tend to be associated w/ higher counterproductive work behaviour, withdrawal behaviours, & occupational
injury
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Document Summary

Personality: the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influence the way a person interacts w/ his environment. A persons personality summarizes their style of deal w/ the world. It consists of a number of dimensions & traits that are determined in a complex way by genetic predisposition & by learning history. Its relatively stable but can change through learning. In the beginning it was believed personality was important factor in many areas of organizational behaviour such as motivation, attitudes, performance and leadership. After ww2 personality tests were used to select military personal & in 1950s became popular in business organizations. Focuses on a persons dispositions & personality. Says people possess stable traits that influence their attitudes/behaviours. Says people are predisposed to behave a certain way. Says characteristics of the organization setting (rewards/punishments etc. ) influence people"s thought, feelings, attitudes & behaviour. Over years people have debated these approaches in the person-situation debate.

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