BUS 2090 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, Signalling Theory

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Published on 2 Feb 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Business
Course
BUS 2090
Professor
Chapter 3 Individuals, Groups & Organizations
Perception, Attribution & Diversity
What is Perception?
Perception: The process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order & meaning to the
environment
Helps sort out & organize the complex & varied input received by our senses of sight, touch, sound, taste
& hearing
Based on interpretation not reality
Components of Perception
Perception has 3 components
1. The Perceiver
The perceivers needs, experience & emotions can affect his/her perceptions of a target
Past experience is very important and can make the perceiver develop expectations that will affect current
perceptions
Our needs can affect our perceptions by unconsciously influencing us to perceive what we wish to perceive
Our emotions can cause us to misinterpret
Perceptual Defense: The tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions
“See what we want to see”
2. The Target
Perception involves interpretation & adding meaning to the target
3. The Situation
A situation can add info about the target
Social Identity Theory
Social Identity Theory: People form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics & membership in
social categories
When asked, “who are you” you will usually respond in term of what categories you belong to (Canadian,
student, mother etc.)
Our sense of self is based on our personal identity and a social identity
Our personal identity is based on our personal, unique characteristics (abilities. Interests, traits)
Social identity is based on our perception that we belong to certain groups (gender, nationality,
occupation etc.)
People categorize themselves and others to make sense of and understand social environment
Once we categorize people we seem to see members of that category as having attributes of that
category = “Prototypes”
In addition to forming self-perceptions based on social memberships, we also form perceptions of others
based on their membership in social categories
B/c social identities are relational & comparative
A Model of the Perceptual Process
Bruner’s Perceptional Model
Bruner says when a perceiver encounters an unfamiliar target, the perceiver is very open to the
informational cues contained in the target & the situation surrounding it
In this unfamiliar state the perceiver really needs info on which to base perceptions
Gradually perceiver will receive familiar cues that enable him to make a basic categorization of the target
Now perceiver begins to seek out cues to confirm categorization
Early categorization can be changed if cant find any cues to confirm
3 Important Characteristics of the Perceptual process…
1. Perception is selective
Perceivers don't use ALL available cues
2. Perceptual Constancy
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The tendency for a target to be perceived the same way across situations over time
3. Perceptual Consistency
Tendency to select, ignore & distort cues in such a manner that they fit together to form a homo picture
of the target
Basic Biases in Person Perception
Primacy & Recency Effects
Primacy Effect: The tendency of a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions
Recency Effects: The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions
Reliance on Central Traits
Central Traits: Personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver
People form perceptions based around personal characteristics of the target that are of special interest to
them
The centrality of the traits depends on the perceiver’s interests and the situation
Attractiveness & height have been found to be related to better job performance
Implicit Personality Traits
Implicit Personality Traits: Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go
together
E.g. You think hardworking people are also honest
Projection
Projection: The tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts & feelings to others
People often assume that others are like themselves
In some cases, projection is efficient and sensible perception strategy but sometimes can lead to perceptual
difficulties
Stereotyping
Stereotyping: The tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among
them
Might be by age, gender, ethnicity, social class, race, occupation etc.
Not all stereotypes are unfavorable
People evoke stereotypes w/ very little info
Not all stereotypes are inaccurate
Attribution: Perceiving Causes & Motives
Attribution: The process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour
Many rewards & Punishments in organizations are based on judgements about what really caused a
target person to behave in a certain way
Must determine whether the behaviour was caused by dispositional or situational factors
Dispositional Factors: Explanations for behaviour based on a person’s personality or intellect
Situational Factors: Explanations for behaviour based on a person’s external situation/environment
3 implicit questions guide our decisions as to whether we should attribute behaviour to dispositional or situational
factors…
1. Consistency Cues
These cues reflect how consistently a person engages in behaviour over time
High consistency leads to dispositional attributions
Low consistency leads to situational attributions
2. Consensus Cues
Cues that reflect how a persons behaviour compares w/ that of others
Acts that differ from social expectations provide us w/ more info about the person’s motives than
conforming behaviours *do
Low-Consensus behaviour leads to more dispositional attributes than high-consensus behaviour
* We pay more attention to people’s private actions than public actions when assessing their motives b/c when our
actions aren’t open to scrutiny; we tend to act more genuine in our motives & feelings
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Document Summary

Perception: the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order & meaning to the environment. Helps sort out & organize the complex & varied input received by our senses of sight, touch, sound, taste. The perceivers needs, experience & emotions can affect his/her perceptions of a target. Past experience is very important and can make the perceiver develop expectations that will affect current perceptions. Our needs can affect our perceptions by unconsciously influencing us to perceive what we wish to perceive. Our emotions can cause us to misinterpret. Perceptual defense: the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions. See what we want to see : the target. Perception involves interpretation & adding meaning to the target: the situation. A situation can add info about the target. Social identity theory: people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics & membership in social categories.

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