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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 BUS 2090.docx

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Department
Business
Course Code
BUS 2090
Professor
Hassan Wafai

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Chapter 4 Individuals, Groups & Organizations
Values, Attitudes & Work Behaviour
What are Values?
Values: A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others
Values are motivational since they signal the attractive aspects of our environment that we seek and the
unattractive aspects we try to avoid or change
We learn values through the re-enforcement process
Generational Differences in Value
Many contemporary organizations are attempting to understand the implications of having distinctive
generations in the workplace at once
These different generations grew up under different socialization experiences
Many common view/stereotypes of these generations
Generation X: Cynical, confident & Pragmatic
Generation Y: Confident, social, demanding of feedback and unfocused
Traditionalists: Respectful of authority, high ethic
Boomers: Optimistic Workaholics
Organizations have to tailor job designs, leadership styles and benefits to the generational mix of their
workforce
Cultural Differences in Values
Work is valued different across cultures
Hofstede’s Study
Questioned over 116000 IMB employees located in 40 countries about their work-related values
Discovered 5 basic dimensions along which work-relate values differed across cultures: power distance
uncertainty avoidance, masculine/femininity, and individualism/collectivism
1. Power Distance: The extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members
In small power difference cultures, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible and power
differences are downplayed
2. Uncertainty Avoidance: The extent to which people are comfortable w/ uncertain & ambiguous situations
Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules & regulations, hard work, conformity & security
Cultures w/ weak uncertainty avoidance are less concerned with rules, conformity & security
3. Masculinity/Femininity: The extent to which people are uncomfortable w/ uncertain & ambiguous
situations
More masculine cultures stress economic performance
More feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, sexual quality and stress quality of life
4. Individualism/collectivism: Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative and privacy
while collective cultures favor interdependence and loyalty to family or clan
5. Long-term/short-term Orientation: Cultures w/ long-term orientation tend to be stress persistence,
perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status difference. Cultures w/ short-term orientation stress
personal steadiness/stability, face-saving and social niceties
Implications of Cultural variation
Exporting OB Theories
OB theories, research and practices from North America might not translate well to other societies
A good fit between practices & the host culture is important
Importing OB Theories
Sometimes problems occur because values are different
Appreciating Global Customers
Appreciation of cross cultural differences in values is essential to understanding the needs & states of
customers or clients around the world
What are Attitudes?

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Description
Chapter 4 Individuals, Groups & Organizations Values, Attitudes & Work Behaviour What are Values? Values: A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others  Values are motivational since they signal the attractive aspects of our environment that we seek and the unattractive aspects we try to avoid or change  We learn values through the re-enforcement process Generational Differences in Value  Many contemporary organizations are attempting to understand the implications of having distinctive generations in the workplace at once  These different generations grew up under different socialization experiences  Many common view/stereotypes of these generations  Generation X: Cynical, confident & Pragmatic  Generation Y: Confident, social, demanding of feedback and unfocused  Traditionalists: Respectful of authority, high ethic  Boomers: Optimistic Workaholics  Organizations have to tailor job designs, leadership styles and benefits to the generational mix of their workforce Cultural Differences in Values  Work is valued different across cultures Hofstede’s Study  Questioned over 116000 IMB employees located in 40 countries about their work-related values  Discovered 5 basic dimensions along which work-relate values differed across cultures: power distance uncertainty avoidance, masculine/femininity, and individualism/collectivism 1. Power Distance: The extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members  In small power difference cultures, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible and power differences are downplayed 2. Uncertainty Avoidance: The extent to which people are comfortable w/ uncertain & ambiguous situations  Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules & regulations, hard work, conformity & security  Cultures w/ weak uncertainty avoidance are less concerned with rules, conformity & security 3. Masculinity/Femininity: The extent to which people are uncomfortable w/ uncertain & ambiguous situations  More masculine cultures stress economic performance  More feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, sexual quality and stress quality of life 4. Individualism/collectivism: Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative and privacy while collective cultures favor interdependence and loyalty to family or clan 5. Long-term/short-term Orientation: Cultures w/ long-term orientation tend to be stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status difference. Cultures w/ short-term orientation stress personal steadiness/stability, face-saving and social niceties Implications of Cultural variation Exporting OB Theories  OB theories, research and practices from North America might not translate well to other societies  A good fit between practices & the host culture is important Importing OB Theories  Sometimes problems occur because values are different Appreciating Global Customers  Appreciation of cross cultural differences in values is essential to understanding the needs & states of customers or clients around the world What are Attitudes? Attitude: A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person or people  Attitudes involve evaluations directed towards specific targets  Attitudes are much more specific than values  Attitudes influence behaviour  Attitudes aren’t always consistent w/ behaviour  Attitudes are a funct
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