BUS 2090 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Workaholics, Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction

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3 Feb 2013

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Chapter 4 Individuals, Groups & Organizations
Values, Attitudes & Work Behaviour
What are Values?
Values: A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others
Values are motivational since they signal the attractive aspects of our environment that we seek and the
unattractive aspects we try to avoid or change
We learn values through the re-enforcement process
Generational Differences in Value
Many contemporary organizations are attempting to understand the implications of having distinctive
generations in the workplace at once
These different generations grew up under different socialization experiences
Many common view/stereotypes of these generations
Generation X: Cynical, confident & Pragmatic
Generation Y: Confident, social, demanding of feedback and unfocused
Traditionalists: Respectful of authority, high ethic
Boomers: Optimistic Workaholics
Organizations have to tailor job designs, leadership styles and benefits to the generational mix of their
Cultural Differences in Values
Work is valued different across cultures
Hofstede’s Study
Questioned over 116000 IMB employees located in 40 countries about their work-related values
Discovered 5 basic dimensions along which work-relate values differed across cultures: power distance
uncertainty avoidance, masculine/femininity, and individualism/collectivism
1. Power Distance: The extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members
In small power difference cultures, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible and power
differences are downplayed
2. Uncertainty Avoidance: The extent to which people are comfortable w/ uncertain & ambiguous situations
Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules & regulations, hard work, conformity & security
Cultures w/ weak uncertainty avoidance are less concerned with rules, conformity & security
3. Masculinity/Femininity: The extent to which people are uncomfortable w/ uncertain & ambiguous
More masculine cultures stress economic performance
More feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, sexual quality and stress quality of life
4. Individualism/collectivism: Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative and privacy
while collective cultures favor interdependence and loyalty to family or clan
5. Long-term/short-term Orientation: Cultures w/ long-term orientation tend to be stress persistence,
perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status difference. Cultures w/ short-term orientation stress
personal steadiness/stability, face-saving and social niceties
Implications of Cultural variation
Exporting OB Theories
OB theories, research and practices from North America might not translate well to other societies
A good fit between practices & the host culture is important
Importing OB Theories
Sometimes problems occur because values are different
Appreciating Global Customers
Appreciation of cross cultural differences in values is essential to understanding the needs & states of
customers or clients around the world
What are Attitudes?
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