BUS 2090 Chapter 9: Chapter 9-BUS2090

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16 Aug 2016
Katy Lemaire BUS2090 February 25th, 2016.
Chapter 9: Leadership
9.1: Leadership and Organizations
-Leadership is the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of
others in an organizational context.
-leadership is about motivating people and gaining their commitment
-Strategic leadership is leadership that involves the ability to anticipate, envision,
maintain flexibility, think strategically and work with others to initiate changes that will
create a viable future for the organization.
9.2 Trait Theory of Leadership
-theory operates on the basis that leadership depends on the personality qualities of a
-traits are individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability and
-traits included in this approach are: intelligence, energy and drive, self confidence,
dominance, motivation, emotional stability, honesty, integrity, need for achievement and
-certain traits are more closely linked to leadership and effectiveness
-corporations use trait based assessments to judge a leader
-limitations include: difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or if
opportunities do, fails to take into account the situations and promotes the idea that just
because an individual has a certain trait that they will automatically become a leader.
9.3 Leadership behaviours and their consequences
-consideration is the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal
concern and respect for employees. Seen as friendly and egalitarian.
-initiating structure is the degree to which the leader concentrates on group goal
attainment. This leader is very structured and stresses standard procedures.
The Consequences of Consideration and Structure: when employees are under a high
degree of pressure due to external influences, initiating structure increases satisfaction.
When the task itself is intrinsically satisfying, need for high consideration is generally
reduced. When goals are clear, consideration promotes satisfaction and when employees
lack knowledge of completing a task, initiating structure becomes the most important.
*each is dependant on the task at hand!!
-Leader reward behaviour is the leader’s use of compliments, tangible benefits and
deserved special treatment.
-Leader punishment behaviour is the leader’s use of reprimands or unfavourable task
assignment and the active withholding of rewards
9.4 Situational Theories of Leadership
-the setting that influences the type and methods of a leader
(1) Fiedler’s Contingency Theory: refined the contingency theory which states that the
association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how
favourable the situation is for exerting influence. Leadership orientation is often
measured by having leaders describe their least preferred co-worker which is a current
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