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Chapter 4

HR Chapter 4


Department
Business
Course Code
BUS 3000
Professor
Nita Chhinzer
Chapter
4

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cξ€€ξ€ξ€‚ξ€ƒξ€„ξ€…ξ€†ξ€‡ξ€ˆξ€†ξ€†ξ€‰ξ€„ξ€Šξ€‹ξ€Œξ€ξ€‹ξ€ξ€Œξ€†ξ€ξ€ξ€‰ξ€†ξ€ξ€ξ€ξ€Žξ€ξ€Šξ€‹ξ€ξ€Œξ€†ξ€ξ€‘ξ€’ξ€Šξ€†

ξ€‘ξ€“ξ€”ξ€•ξ€–ξ€—ξ€˜ξ€—ξ€–ξ€”ξ€†ξ€™ξ€šξ€“ξ€›ξ€†ξ€œξ€šξ€“ξ€†ξ€ξ€žξ€“ξ€•ξ€žξ€Ÿξ€”ξ€— ! ξ€Ÿξ€ξ€ξ€ˆξ€†
pAn organization consists of one or more employees who perform various tasks. The
relationships between people and tasks must be structured so that the organization achieves
its strategic goals in an efficient and effective manner through a motivated and engaged
workforce
ξ€‘ξ€“ξ€”ξ€•ξ€–ξ€—ξ€˜ξ€•ξ€žξ€—ξ€šξ€–ξ€•"ξ€†ξ€Šξ€žξ€“! ξ€ž!ξ€“ξ€Ÿξ€ˆ the formal relationships among jobs in an organization
ξ€‘ξ€“ξ€”ξ€•ξ€–ξ€—ξ€˜ξ€•ξ€žξ€—ξ€šξ€–ξ€•"c#ξ€•ξ€“ξ€žξ€ˆ is often used to depict the structure. A Β³snapshotΒ΄ of the firm, depicting the
organizations structure in chart form at a particular point in time.
pξ‚›t does not provide details about actual communication patterns, degree of supervision,
amount of power, and authority, or specific duties and responsibilities
Figure 4.2- depicts 3 common types of organizational structure:
pξ€’!ξ€“ξ€Ÿξ€•! ξ€“ξ€•ξ€žξ€— 
pξ‚Œ"ξ€•ξ€žξ€†
pΓ¨ξ€•ξ€žξ€“ξ€—$
ξ‚›n flatter organizations, managers have increased spans of control (number of employees reporting to
them) and thus less time to manage each one. Therefore jobs involve more responsibility. ξ‚›n
organizations using self-managed work teams, employees jobs change daily, so management
intentionally avoids having employees view their jobs as specific, narrow set of responsibilities. The
focus is on defining the job at hand in terms of the overall best interests of the organization.
ξ€’!ξ€“ξ€Ÿξ€•! ξ€“ξ€•ξ€žξ€— ξ€ˆξ€†ξ€†
pTop down management
pΓ¨any levels and hierarchical communication channels and career paths
pξ‚‘ighly specialized jobs with narrowly defined job descriptions
pFocus on independent performance
Ex: President, Vice president, Directions, Γ¨anagers, Staff
ξ‚Œ"ξ€•ξ€žξ€ˆξ€†ξ€†
pDecentralized management approach
pFew levels and multi-directional communication
puroadly defined jobs, with general job descriptions
pEmphasis on teams and on product development
Ex: Owner, Γ¨anagers, Associates
Γ¨ξ€•ξ€žξ€“ξ€—$ξ€ˆξ€†ξ€†
pEach job has two components: functional and product
pFinance personnel for product u and responsible to both the finance executive and the
product u executive
Ex: Γ¨arketing, Finance, Sales, Production
pξ‚›n most organizations, work is divided into manageable units and ultimately jobs that can be
performed by employees

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ξ€ξ€š%ξ€†ξ€‰ξ€Ÿξ€ξ€—ξ€”ξ€–ξ€ˆ the process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a
specific job. An organizations strategy and structure influence the ways in which jobs are designed.
Effective job design also takes into consideration human and technological factors
For example: ξ‚›n bureaucratic organizations, because a hierarchical division of labor exists, jobs are
generally highly specialized.
ξ€ξ€š%ξ€ˆ consists of a group of related activities and duties, held by a single employee or a number of
incumbents Ex: Professor
ξ€‚ξ€šξ€ξ€—ξ€žξ€—ξ€šξ€–ξ€ˆ the collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person
Ex: Prof of uξ€€S * 3000- 4 of them
* EX. Counter Job at Γ¨cDonaldsΒΆ- One job, but they need to fill 3 positions, 3 people- 3 positions-
FRONT COξ€€NTER, FRONT COξ€€NTER, FRONT COξ€€NTER or in a department with 1 supervisor, 1
clerk, 40 assemblers, and 3 tow-motor operators, there are 45 positions, and 4 jobs.
&ξ€šξ€“ξ€›ξ€†ξ€Šξ€—'("ξ€—ξ€œξ€— ξ€•ξ€žξ€—ξ€šξ€–: evolved from scientific management theory. ξ‚›t is based on the premise that work
can be broken down into clearly defined, highly specialized, repetitive tasks to maximize efficiency.
ξ‚›nvolves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work (such as planning and organizing) to
supervisors and managers, while giving lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform
accordingly to methods established and specified by management
)!ξ€ξ€žξ€“ξ€—ξ€•"ξ€†ξ€„ξ€–ξ€”ξ€—ξ€–ξ€Ÿξ€Ÿξ€“ξ€—ξ€–ξ€”ξ€ˆξ€†another important contribution of scientific management. A field of study
concerned with analyzing work methods; making work cycles more efficient by modifying, or
eliminating tasks; and establishing time standards. 
pToo much emphasis on the concerns of industrial engineering- improving efficiency and
simplifying work methods-may result in human considerations being neglected or
downplayed. 
pFor example: an assembly line, with its simplified and repetitive tasks, embodies the
principles of industrial engineering but may lead to repetitive strain injuries, high turnover,
and low satisfaction because of the lack of psychological fulfillment. Thus, to be effective,
job design must also satisfy human psychological and physiological needs. 

ξ€’ξ€Ÿ#*ξ€—ξ€šξ€“ξ€•"(ξ€Ÿ ξ€žξ€ξ€†ξ€šξ€œξ€†ξ€ξ€š%ξ€†ξ€‰ξ€Ÿξ€ξ€—ξ€”ξ€–ξ€†
ξ€ξ€š%"ξ€•ξ€“ξ€”ξ€Ÿ'ξ€Ÿξ€–ξ€žξ€†+ξ€€ξ€šξ€“ξ€—ξ€˜ξ€šξ€–ξ€žξ€•"ξ€†ξ€Žξ€šξ€•)ξ€—ξ€–ξ€”,ξ€ˆξ€†a technique to relieve monotony and boredom that involves
assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase the number of tasks
they have to perform 
pExample: a worker who used to only bolted the seat to the legs of chairs might take on
responsibility of assembling legs and attaching the back as well.
ξ€ξ€š%ξ€†ξ€…ξ€šξ€žξ€•ξ€žξ€—ξ€šξ€–ξ€ˆ Another technique to relieve monotony and employee boredom that involves
systematically moving employees from one job to another. The company gains by having more
versatile, multi-skilled employees who can cover for one another efficiently. Jobs themselves donΒΆt
change, workers experience more task variety, motivation, and productivity.
X ξ‚›t is also suggested that the best way to motivate workers is to build opportunities for challenge and
achievement into jobs through job enrichment.

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ξ€ξ€š% #'ξ€Ÿξ€–ξ€žξ€†+-ξ€Ÿξ€“ξ€žξ€— ""ξ€šξ€•)ξ€—ξ€–ξ€”,ξ€ˆ Any effort that makes an employeeΒΆs job more rewarding or
satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties. Job enrichment involves increasing autonomy
and responsibility by allowing employees to assume a greater role in the decision-making process.
Enriching can also be accomplished through such activities as:
pξ‚›ncreasing the level of difficulty and responsibility of the job
pAssigning workers more authority and control over outcomes
pProviding feedback about individual or unit job performance directly to employees
pAdding new tasks requiring training, thereby providing an opportunity for growth
pAssigning individuals entire tasks or responsibility for performing a whole job rather than
only parts of it
* Not always the best approach. ξ‚›t is more successful in some job settings then others, for example, not
all employees want additional responsibility and challenge. Some people prefer routine jobs and may
resist job design efforts

ξ€ƒξ€Ÿξ€•'.ξ€’ξ€•ξ€ξ€Ÿ)ξ€†ξ€ξ€š%ξ€†ξ€‰ξ€Ÿξ€ξ€—ξ€”ξ€–ξ€ξ€ˆξ€†Job designs that focus on giving a team, rather than an individual, a whole
and meaningful piece of work to do and empowering a team members to decide among themselves how
to accomplish this work. 
puest suited to flat and matrix organization structures.
pξ‚›ncreasingly, organizations are using Β³virtual teamsΒ΄ who are people working together
effectively and efficiently across boundaries of time and space and using software to make
team meetings more productive 

ξ€ƒξ€Ÿξ€•'ξ€ˆξ€†a small group of people, with complementary skills, who work toward common goals for which
they hold joint responsibility and accountability. 

ξ€„ξ€“ξ€”ξ€šξ€–ξ€š'ξ€— (ξ€Ÿ ξ€žξ€ξ€†ξ€šξ€œξ€†ξ€ξ€š%ξ€†ξ€‰ξ€Ÿξ€ξ€—ξ€”ξ€–ξ€†
uy the late 20th century, it became apparent that in addition to considering psychological needs,
effective design also required taking physiological needs and health and safety issues into account. 

ξ€„ξ€“ξ€”ξ€šξ€–ξ€š'ξ€— ξ€ξ€ˆ seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of works into the design of jobs.
ξ‚›t aims to adapt the entire job system- the work, environments, machines, equipment, and processes-to
match human characteristics. Doing so, results in eliminating or minimizing product defects, damage to
equipment, and worker injuries or illnesses caused by poor work design. 
pξ‚›t also aids in meeting unique requirements of individuals with special needs, such as older
workers and people with disabilities. 
Those who are more satisfied with the physical set-up of their workstations have higher job
satisfaction. 

 ξ€“ξ€Ÿξ€•ξ€ξ€—ξ€–ξ€”ξ€†ξ€ξ€š%ξ€†ξ‚Œ"ξ€Ÿ$ξ€—%ξ€—"ξ€—ξ€ž/

pξ‚›n the 21st century, the traditional meaning of a Β³jobΒ΄ as a set of well-defined and clearly
delineated responsibilities has changed
pCompanies are grappling with challenges such as rapid product and technological change,
global competition, deregulation, political instability, demographic changes, and a shift to a
service economy. This has increased the need for firms to be responsive, flexible, and much
more competitive. 
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