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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 BUS 2090.docx

3 Pages

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BUS 2090
Hassan Wafai

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Chapter 1 Individuals, Groups & Organizations Organizational Behaviour & Management What Are Organizations? Organizations: Social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort Social Inventions  Organizations essential characteristic is people not necessarily things  Organizations gave people whom present both opportunities & challenges  Organizational behaviour is about understanding people & managing them to work effectively Goal Accomplishment  All organizations have goals  Organizational behaviour is concerned w/ how organizations can survive & adapt to change To adapt to change people have to…  Be motivated to join & remain in the organization  Carry out their basic work reliability in terms of productivity quality etc.  Be willing to learn  Be flexible & innovative Group Effort  Organizations are based on group effort  Organizations depend on interaction & coordination among people to accomplish goals  Organizational behaviour is concerned w/ how to get people to practice effective teamwork What Is Organizational Behaviour Organizational Behaviour: The attitudes and behaviours of individuals & groups in organizations  Studies the attitudes & behaviours and provides insight about effectively managing & changing them  Studies also how organizations can be structured more effectively & how external environment factors affect them Why Study Organizational Behaviour?  Interesting to find out why employees become committed to an organization and what motivates them to work hard  The most successful organizations are those who manage their employees successfully Goals of Organizational Behaviour 1. Predicting Organizational Behaviour  Want to predict behaviours such as when people will make ethical decisions, create innovate products, or engage in sexual harassment etc.  Through systematic study, OB provides a scientific foundation that helps improve predictions of organizational events 2. Explaining Organizational Behaviour  Why do organizational events occur?  Especially interested in determining why people are more or less motivated, satisfied, or prone to resign  Explaining events is harder than predicting them b/c a behaviour could have multiple causes 3. Managing Organizational Behaviour  If behaviour can be predicted & explained than it can often be controlled or managed Early Prescriptions Concerning Management There were 2 basic phases to this prescription The Classical View of Bureaucracy  Occurred in early 1900 for most part  Tended to advocate a very high degree of specialization of labour & very high degree of coordination  Each department was to tend to own affairs  Centralized decision making from upper management providing coordination  Managers have very few worker except lower-level jobs where machine pacing might sub for close supervision Scientific Management  Fredrick Taylor’s system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of tasks  Mainly concerned w/ job design Bureaucracy: Max Weber’s ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power & selection & promotion based on technical competence The Human Relations Movement & A critique of Bureaucracy  Generally began with the famous Hawthorne studies of the 1920s & 30s  Studies were concerned w/ the impact of fatigue, rest pauses & lighting on productivity  Researching this revealed that the effects of psychological & social processes had effect on productivity & work adjustment  This showed that there could be dysfunctional aspects of how work is organized  The human relations movement called attention to certain dysfunction aspects of classical management and bureaucracy & advocated more people oriented styles of management that catered more to te social & psychological needs of employees Says that….  People need growth & achievement so strict specialization is bad  Encourage creativity and not centralization & reliance on formal authority Contemporary Management – The Contingency Approach  Recognizes both human relations & classical approach  Approach should be tailored to fit the situation Contingency approach: No 1 best way to manage, & appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation What Do Managers Do? Manager Roles Interpersonal Roles  In the figurehead role, managers serve as symbols of their organization r
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