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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 BUS 2090.docx

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BUS 2090
Hassan Wafai

Chapter 2 Individuals, Groups & Organizations Personality and Learning What is Personality? Personality: The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influence the way a person interacts w/ his environment  A persons personality summarizes their style of deal w/ the world  It consists of a number of dimensions & traits that are determined in a complex way by genetic predisposition & by learning history  Its relatively stable but can change through learning Personality and Organizational Behaviour  In the beginning it was believed personality was important factor in many areas of organizational behaviour such as motivation, attitudes, performance and leadership  After WW2 personality tests were used to select military personal & in 1950s became popular in business organizations Dispositional approach  Focuses on a persons dispositions & personality  Says people possess stable traits that influence their attitudes/behaviours Says people are predisposed to behave a certain way Situational approach  Says characteristics of the organization setting (rewards/punishments etc.) influence people’s thought, feelings, attitudes & behaviour  Over years people have debated these approaches in the “person-situation” debate  Researchers say both are important for predicting & understanding behaviour Interactionist Approach  Says organizational behaviour is a function of both dispositions & the situation  Now the most widely accepted perspective within organizational behaviour  Key component is fit: Manager needs to put the right person into the right job The 5-Factor Model of Personality Psychologists have discovered 5 basic dimensions that describe personality 1. Extraversion: Extent to which a person is outgoing or shy > People high on extraversion tend to be social, outgoing, energetic and joyful 2. Emotional Stability: Degree to which a person has emotional control  People w/ high motional control are self confident & have high self-esteem  People w/ low emotional stability tend to be anxious, hostile, impulsive, insecure and prone to stress 3. Agreeableness: Extent to which a person is friendly & approachable  A more agreeable person is warm, considerate, altruistic, friendly, sympathetic, cooperative etc.  Less agreeable people are cold & aloof & may be inflexible, uncaring & intolerant 4. Conscientiousness: Degree to which a person is responsible & achievement oriented  More conscientious people are dependable & positively motivated, orderly, hard-working etc.  Less conscientious people are irresponsible, lazy and impulsive 5. Openness to Experience: Extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas  More open people are creative/innovative  Less open people favor the status quo Research Evidence  Big 5 dimensions are related to job performance  Big 5 related to other work behaviours such as attendance at work  Big 5 related to motivate & job satisfaction  Big 5 related to career search and career success Locus of Control Locus of control: A set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces  Externals see the world as unpredictable, and think that luck, fate or powerful people control their destinies  Internals tend to see stronger links between the effort they put into their jobs & the performance level they achieve  B/c they see themselves as able to control what happens to them, these people are more satisfied w/ their jobs, earn more money & achieve higher organizational positions  Less stress, cope w/ stress better and engage in more career planning  Locus of control influences org. behaviour in a variety of settings Self-Monitoring Self-monitoring: The extent to which people regulate & observe how they appear & act in social settings & relationships  Low self monitors “wear their heart on their sleeve” & aren’t interested in fitting in w/ those around them  High self monitors take great care to observe & control the images they project  Behave somewhat like actors  Show concern for socially appropriate behaviour, tune into social and interpersonal cues  Gravitate toward jobs that require by nature, a degree of role-playing and exercise their self- presentation skills (e.g. sales, law, PR, politics etc.)  Perform well in jobs that require ability to be flexible & adapt to situations  Tend to be more involved in their jobs, perform at higher level, & more likely to be leaders  Experience more role stress & have less commitment to their organization  May be weak motivators or weak in positions that require “going against the grain” Self-Esteem Self-Esteem: The degree to which a person has positive self-evaluation  People w/ high self esteem have favorable self image  Tend to make more fulfilling career decisions  Have higher job satisfaction and job performance  People w/ low self esteem have unfavorable self image  Tend to be uncertain about correctness of their opinions, attitudes & behaviours  Seek social approval from others  Tend to reach badly to negative feedback w. lowers subsequent performance Behavioural Plasticity Theory  People w/ low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external & social influences than those who have high self-esteem  Events & people in organizations have impact on beliefs & actions of those w/ low-self-esteem Recent Developments in Personality & Organizational Behaviour  5 recent personality variables that have been found to be important to organizational behaviour Positive & Negative Affectivity  Research has found that these are enduring personality characteristics & there might be a genetic & biological basis to them  Can influence peoples emotions & mood states at work & influence job attitudes & work behaviour Positive Affectivity: Tendency to view the world & other people & self in positive light  Cheerful, enthusiastic, lively, socialable & energetic  Found to be more creative @ work Negative Affectivity: Tendency to view the world & other people & self in negative light  Distressed, depressed or unhappy  Tend to be associated w/ higher counterproductive work behaviour, withdrawal behaviours, & occupational injury Proactive Personality Proactive Personality: Taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones  People w/ proactive personality are relatively unconstrained by situational forces and act tl change & influence the environment  IS a stable personal disposition that reflects tendency to take personal initiative  Search to identify opportunity & take action General Self Efficacy General Self-Efficacy: A general trait that refers to a person’s belief in his/her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations  Considered to be a motivational trait rather than an affective trait b/c its not about how person feels about self but their belief that they can succeed at a variety of tasks  If you have succeeded a lot you probably have high GSE  Better able to adapt to adverse, novel or uncertain situations Core Self-Evaluations Core Self-Evaluations: A broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth  People w/ more positive self-evaluations have higher job satisfaction & job performance  Positively related to life & career satisfaction What is Learning?  A relatively permanent change in behaviour potential that occurs due to practice or experience  Practice and experience prompts learning & it stems from an environment that gives feedback concerning the consequences of behaviour 4 primary categories of learning content: 1. Practical Skills: job-specific knowledge, skills & technical competence 2. Intrapersonal Skills: Critical thinking, risk-taking, problem-solving etc. 3. Interpersonal Skills: communi
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