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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 BUS 2090.docx

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BUS 2090
Hassan Wafai

Chapter 4 Individuals, Groups & Organizations Values, Attitudes & Work Behaviour What are Values? Values: A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others  Values are motivational since they signal the attractive aspects of our environment that we seek and the unattractive aspects we try to avoid or change  We learn values through the re-enforcement process Generational Differences in Value  Many contemporary organizations are attempting to understand the implications of having distinctive generations in the workplace at once  These different generations grew up under different socialization experiences  Many common view/stereotypes of these generations  Generation X: Cynical, confident & Pragmatic  Generation Y: Confident, social, demanding of feedback and unfocused  Traditionalists: Respectful of authority, high ethic  Boomers: Optimistic Workaholics  Organizations have to tailor job designs, leadership styles and benefits to the generational mix of their workforce Cultural Differences in Values  Work is valued different across cultures Hofstede’s Study  Questioned over 116000 IMB employees located in 40 countries about their work-related values  Discovered 5 basic dimensions along which work-relate values differed across cultures: power distance uncertainty avoidance, masculine/femininity, and individualism/collectivism 1. Power Distance: The extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members  In small power difference cultures, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible and power differences are downplayed 2. Uncertainty Avoidance: The extent to which people are comfortable w/ uncertain & ambiguous situations  Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules & regulations, hard work, conformity & security  Cultures w/ weak uncertainty avoidance are less concerned with rules, conformity & security 3. Masculinity/Femininity: The extent to which people are uncomfortable w/ uncertain & ambiguous situations  More masculine cultures stress economic performance  More feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, sexual quality and stress quality of life 4. Individualism/collectivism: Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative and privacy while collective cultures favor interdependence and loyalty to family or clan 5. Long-term/short-term Orientation: Cultures w/ long-term orientation tend to be stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status difference. Cultures w/ short-term orientation stress personal steadiness/stability, face-saving and social niceties Implications of Cultural variation Exporting OB Theories  OB theories, research and practices from North America might not translate well to other societies  A good fit between practices & the host culture is important Importing OB Theories  Sometimes problems occur because values are different Appreciating Global Customers  Appreciation of cross cultural differences in values is essential to understanding the needs & states of customers or clients around the world What are Attitudes? Attitude: A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person or people  Attitudes involve evaluations directed towards specific targets  Attitudes are much more specific than values  Attitudes influence behaviour  Attitudes aren’t always consistent w/ behaviour  Attitudes are a funct
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