Textbook Notes (369,035)
Canada (162,359)
Business (63)
BUS 2090 (48)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Organizational Behaviour

5 Pages
Unlock Document

BUS 2090
Hassan Wafai

Chapter 5 Individuals, Groups & Organizations Theories of Work Motivation What is Motivation? Motivation: The extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal Basic characteristics of motivation  Effort is the 1 aspect of motivation and is the strength of the person’s work-related behaviour  Persistence exhibited by employees  Direction of the persons work-related behaviour  Do employees channel persistent effort in a way that benefits the organization?  Goals Extrinsic & Intrinsic Motivation  Intrinsic motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker & the task and is usually self- applied  Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge etc.  Extrinsic Motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and is usually applied by someone other than the person being motivated  Pay, fringe benefits, company policies & various forms of supervision etc, Self Determination Theory: A motivation theory that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled  When people are motivated by intrinsic factors they are in control of their motivation = Autonomous motivation  When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward, their motivation is externally controlled = Controlled Motivation Motivation& Performance Performance: The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization  Motivation contributes to performance but so do other factors such as personality, task understanding, persistence of effort etc. Two kinds of Intelligence also contributes to performance General Cognitive Ability: A person’s basic information processing abilities and cognitive resources  Reflects persons overall capacity and efficiency for processing info & includes cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial etc.  Usually measured by aptitude tests  Research shows that general cognitive ability predicts learning and training success as well as job performance in all types of jobs Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manages ones own & other’s feelings & emotions  Ability to perceive and express emotion, understand, and manage emotions John Meyer & Peter Salovey developed EI model…. 1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself & others 2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking 3. Understanding emotions, emotional language & the signals conveyed by emotions 4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals  Person is able to regulate, adjust & change his/her own emotions and other’s emotions to suit the situation  Research shows EI can predict job & academic performance The Motivation-Performance Relationship  Performance can be low even when a person is highly motivated  Poor performance can be due to poor understanding of the task or luck and change factors that damage performance of the most highly motivated people  This can work the other way where a person who has weak motivation performs well due to luck Need Theories of Work Motivation  Need theories are motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have & the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance  Needs are psychological and physiological wants/desires that can be acquired by certain incentives or achieving certain goals Needs  Behaviour  Incentives & Goals Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  5 sets of needs that are arranged in a hierarchy beginning with most basic and compelling needs Alderfer’s ERG Theory  Streamlines Maslow’s need theory and makes some different assumption about relationship b/t needs & motivation 3 Categories… 1. Existence Needs: Needs satisfied by some material substance or condition.  Food, shelter, pay, safe working conditions etc. 2. Relatedness Needs: Needs satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thoughts & feelings with other organizational members  Open, accurate & honest interaction 3. Growth Needs: Needs fulfilled by strong personal involvement in the work setting  Self-actualization needs and aspects of Maslow’s esteem needs that concern achievement & Responsibility *ERG doesn't assume that the lower level needs need to be achieved to move on to next set *The more lower-level needs are gratified the more higher-level needs satisfaction is desired *The less higher-level needs are gratified, the more lower-level satisfaction is desired McClelland’s Theory of Needs  A non-hierarchal need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation  Says needs reflect relatively stable personality characteristics that one acquires through early life experiences and exposure to selected aspects of society  Concerned with behaviour consequences of needs  Under what conditions are certain needs likely to result in certain patterns of motivation? 3 Needs that have relevance to OB… Need for achievement  Strong desire to perform challenging tasks well  Preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes  Tendency to set moderately hard goals that provide calculated risks  Desire for performance feedback Need for Affiliation  Strong desire to establish & maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships  Prefer to avoid conflict and competition w. others & sometimes exhibit strong conformity to the wishes of their friends Need for Power  Desire to hove a strong influence over others  Seek out social settings in which they can be influential Managerial Implications of Need Theories Appreciative Diversity  The lack of support for the fairly rigid need hierarchy suggests that managers must be adept at evaluating the needs of individual employees & offering incentives or goals that correspond to their needs  Important to survey employees to find out what their needs are & offer programs that meet their needs Appreciative Intrinsic Motivation  Need theories also serve important function of alerting managers to the existence of higher0order needs  Important b/c one of the main conditions for OB survival is the expression of some creative & innovative behaviour on the part of members  Behaviour likely to occur during pursuit of higher-order need fulfillment Process Theories of Work Motivation Process Theories: Motivation theories that specify the details of how motivation occurs Expectancy Theory  Basic idea is the belief that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on ste job  Victor Vroom developed 1 version of this theory Basic Components… Outcomes: The consequences that follow certain work behaviours st  1 level outcomes are of particular interest to the organization (Eh. High vs. astrage productivity)  Theory concerned w/ specifying how an employee might attempt to choose 1 1 level outcome instead of another  2 level outcomes are consequences that follow the attainment of a particular 1 level outcome (most relevant to the individual worker & might involve amount of pay, ac
More Less

Related notes for BUS 2090

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.