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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Organizational Behaviour

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Department
Business
Course
BUS 2090
Professor
Hassan Wafai
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 5 Individuals, Groups & Organizations Theories of Work Motivation What is Motivation? Motivation: The extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal Basic characteristics of motivation  Effort is the 1 aspect of motivation and is the strength of the person’s work-related behaviour  Persistence exhibited by employees  Direction of the persons work-related behaviour  Do employees channel persistent effort in a way that benefits the organization?  Goals Extrinsic & Intrinsic Motivation  Intrinsic motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker & the task and is usually self- applied  Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge etc.  Extrinsic Motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and is usually applied by someone other than the person being motivated  Pay, fringe benefits, company policies & various forms of supervision etc, Self Determination Theory: A motivation theory that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled  When people are motivated by intrinsic factors they are in control of their motivation = Autonomous motivation  When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward, their motivation is externally controlled = Controlled Motivation Motivation& Performance Performance: The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization  Motivation contributes to performance but so do other factors such as personality, task understanding, persistence of effort etc. Two kinds of Intelligence also contributes to performance General Cognitive Ability: A person’s basic information processing abilities and cognitive resources  Reflects persons overall capacity and efficiency for processing info & includes cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial etc.  Usually measured by aptitude tests  Research shows that general cognitive ability predicts learning and training success as well as job performance in all types of jobs Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manages ones own & other’s feelings & emotions  Ability to perceive and express emotion, understand, and manage emotions John Meyer & Peter Salovey developed EI model…. 1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself & others 2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking 3. Understanding emotions, emotional language & the signals conveyed by emotions 4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals  Person is able to regulate, adjust & change his/her own emotions and other’s emotions to suit the situation  Research shows EI can predict job & academic performance The Motivation-Performance Relationship  Performance can be low even when a person is highly motivated  Poor performance can be due to poor understanding of the task or luck and change factors that damage performance of the most highly motivated people  This can work the other way where a person who has weak motivation performs well due to luck Need Theories of Work Motivation  Need theories are motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have & the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance  Needs are psychological and physiological wants/desires that can be acquired by certain incentives or achieving certain goals Needs  Behaviour  Incentives & Goals Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  5 sets of needs that are arranged in a hierarchy beginning with most basic and compelling needs Alderfer’s ERG Theory  Streamlines Maslow’s need theory and makes some different assumption about relationship b/t needs & motivation 3 Categories… 1. Existence Needs: Needs satisfied by some material substance or condition.  Food, shelter, pay, safe working conditions etc. 2. Relatedness Needs: Needs satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thoughts & feelings with other organizational members  Open, accurate & honest interaction 3. Growth Needs: Needs fulfilled by strong personal involvement in the work setting  Self-actualization needs and aspects of Maslow’s esteem needs that concern achievement & Responsibility *ERG doesn't assume that the lower level needs need to be achieved to move on to next set *The more lower-level needs are gratified the more higher-level needs satisfaction is desired *The less higher-level needs are gratified, the more lower-level satisfaction is desired McClelland’s Theory of Needs  A non-hierarchal need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation  Says needs reflect relatively stable personality characteristics that one acquires through early life experiences and exposure to selected aspects of society  Concerned with behaviour consequences of needs  Under what conditions are certain needs likely to result in certain patterns of motivation? 3 Needs that have relevance to OB… Need for achievement  Strong desire to perform challenging tasks well  Preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes  Tendency to set moderately hard goals that provide calculated risks  Desire for performance feedback Need for Affiliation  Strong desire to establish & maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships  Prefer to avoid conflict and competition w. others & sometimes exhibit strong conformity to the wishes of their friends Need for Power  Desire to hove a strong influence over others  Seek out social settings in which they can be influential Managerial Implications of Need Theories Appreciative Diversity  The lack of support for the fairly rigid need hierarchy suggests that managers must be adept at evaluating the needs of individual employees & offering incentives or goals that correspond to their needs  Important to survey employees to find out what their needs are & offer programs that meet their needs Appreciative Intrinsic Motivation  Need theories also serve important function of alerting managers to the existence of higher0order needs  Important b/c one of the main conditions for OB survival is the expression of some creative & innovative behaviour on the part of members  Behaviour likely to occur during pursuit of higher-order need fulfillment Process Theories of Work Motivation Process Theories: Motivation theories that specify the details of how motivation occurs Expectancy Theory  Basic idea is the belief that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on ste job  Victor Vroom developed 1 version of this theory Basic Components… Outcomes: The consequences that follow certain work behaviours st  1 level outcomes are of particular interest to the organization (Eh. High vs. astrage productivity)  Theory concerned w/ specifying how an employee might attempt to choose 1 1 level outcome instead of another  2 level outcomes are consequences that follow the attainment of a particular 1 level outcome (most relevant to the individual worker & might involve amount of pay, ac
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