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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Organizational Behaviour

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BUS 2090
Hassan Wafai

Chapter 7 Individuals, Groups & Organizations Groups & Teamwork What is a Group? Group: 2 or more people interacting independently to achieve a common goal  Interaction is the most basic aspect of group  All groups have goals which can range from having fun to marketing a new product to achieving world peace  Groups serve as social mechanisms by which we acquire many beliefs, values & attitudes & behaviours  Group membership is also important b/c groups provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others Formal Work Groups: Groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals  Most common consists of a manager and the employees who report to that manager  Also include task forces & committees (task forces = temporary & committees = permanent) Informal Groups: Groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members  They are seldom sanctioned by the organization & membership often cuts across formal groups Group Development Typical Stages of Group Development Leaders & trainers observe that groups develop through a series of stages over time: Forming: Group members try to orient themselves by “testing the waters” Storming: Conflict often emerges as members determine whether they will go along w/ the way the group is developing Norming: Members resolve issues and develop social consensus Performing: The group devotes its energies toward task accomplishment Adjourning: Some groups, have a definite life span and disperse after achieving their goals. Some groups disperse when corporate layoffs & downsizing occurs Punctuated Equilibrium A model of group development that describes how groups w/ deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions Phase 1 st  Phase 1 begins w/ the 1 meeting & continues until the midpoint in the group’s exercise  1 meeting is critical in setting the agenda for what will happen in the remainder of this phase Midpoint Transition: Occurs exactly halfway point in time towards the group’s deadline  Transition marks a change in the groups approach Phase 2: Decisions & approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out in Phase 2. It concludes w/ a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders evaluate the product Take-Away from Model  Prepare carefully for the 1 meeting  As long as people are working, don't look for radical progress during phase 1  Manage midpoint transition carefully  Be sure adequate resources are available to actually execute the Phase 2 Plan  Resist deadline changes Group Structure & Its Consequences Group Size  The smallest possible group has 2 people  Most work groups, including task forces and committees usually have 3 -20 members Size & Satisfaction  Members of larger groups rather consistently report less satisfaction w/ group members than those in smaller groups  More members = more viewpoints which increases chances of disagreement & conflict  Many people are inhibited about participating in larger groups Size & Performance  Depends on the exact task the group needs to achieve Additive tasks: Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of performance of individual group members  Eg. Building a house depends on speed of individual carpenters  For additive task potential performance of the group increases w/ group size Disjunctive Tasks: Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member  Potential performance of groups also increased w/ group size b/c probability that the group includes a superior performer increases Process Losses: Performance differences that stem from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups  Problems of communication & decision making increased w/ size Conjunctive Tasks: Tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member  E.g Assembly line worker Diversity of Group Members  Group diversity has a strong impact on interaction patterns – more diverse groups have harder time communicating effectively & becoming cohesive  May take longer to do their forming, storming & norming  Diverse groups sometimes perform better when task requires cognitive, creativity-demanding tasks and problem solving rather than more routine work b/c broader array of ideas Group Norms Norms: Collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of eachother  Codes of conduct  Much normative influence is unconscious & we are often aware of such influence only in special circumstances  We also become aware of norms when we encounter ones that seem to conflict with eachother or when we go into new social situations Norm Development  Norms serve to provide regularity and predictability to behaviour  This consistency gives us important psychological security and allows us to carry out daily business w/ minimal disruption  Norms develop to regulate behaviours that are considered at least marginally important to their supporters  People develop attitudes as a function of a related belief and value  In many cases attitudes affect behaviours  Norms are not individual… they are COLLECTIVELY held expectations  Most people comply w/ normal b/c the norm corresponds to privately held attitudes Some Typical Norms Some classes of norms that seem to crop up the most in organizations & affect the behaviour of members: Dress Norms: Social norms frequently dictate the kind of clothing people wear to work  Military orgs. Tend to invoke formal norms  Ties to work Reward Allocation Norms: There are at least 4 norms that might dictate how rewards, such as pay, promos and informal favors, could be allocated in organizations a. Equity: Reward according to inputs, such as effort, performance, & seniority b. Equality: Reward everyone equally c. Reciprocity: Reward people the way they reward you d. Social Responsibility: Reward those who truly need to the reward Performance Norms: The performance of organizational members might be as much a function of social expectations as it is of inherit ability, personal motivation or technology Roles Roles: Position in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them  Roles represent “packages” of norms  In organizations we find 2 different types of roles 1. Designated/assigned Roles: Formally prescribed by an organization by means of diving labour and responsibility to facilitate task achievement  Indicate who does what 2. Emergent roles: Roles that develop naturally to meet social-emotional needs of group members  Eg. Class clown, group gossiper Role Conflict Role Conflict: A condition of being faced w/ incompatible role expectations  Incompatible in the sense that they aren’t mutually exclusive = cant be fulfilled simultaneously Intrasender role conflict Occurs when a single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to the role occupant  E.g manager tells employee to take it easy while delivering another batch of reports that are ASAP Intersender Role Confstct occurs when 2+ senders differ in their expectations for a role occupant  When a 1 level manager, who serves as the interface between management & the workers. From above, the manager might be pressured to get the work out and keep the troops in line. From below he/she might be encouraged to behave in a considerate & friendly manner Interrole Conflict occurs when several roles held by a role occupant involve incompatible expectations  Sometimes members play several roles at 1 time that conflict Person-role Conflict occurs when the role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the personality or skills of role occupant Status Status: The rank, social position, or prestige accorded to some group members  Organizations has forma (includ
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