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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Organizational Behaviour

5 Pages

Course Code
BUS 2090
Hassan Wafai

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Chapter 9 Individuals, Groups & Organizations Leadership What is Leadership? Leadership: The influence that particular people exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context  Effective leadership has influence in way that achieves goals by enhancing productivity, innovation, satisfaction and commitment Strategic Leadership: Leadership that involves the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically & work w/ others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization  Strategic leaders are open & honest in their interactions w/ stakeholders & focus on the future Are Leaders Born?... Research on Leadership Traits  Throughout history social observers have been fascinated with what traits leaders possess Traits: Individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability & personality  Research has shown that many traits are linked to whether people become leaders or how effective of leaders they are Limitations of the Trait Approach  Even though traits appear to be related to leadership in many cases its hard to determine whether traits make the leader or whether the opportunity for leadership produces the traits  In the trait approach there is a failure to take situation into consideration The Behaviour of Leaders  The trait approach is more concerned about what leaders bring to a group setting while the behaviour approach focuses on what leaders do in group setting  What are the behaviours leaders engage in & how do these behaviour influence employee performance? 2 Basic types of behaviour… 1. Consideration: The extent to which a leader is approachable & shows personal concern and respect for employees 2. Initiation Structure: The degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment  Will clearly define and organize his/her role & the role of followers, stresses standard procedures, schedules work to be done and assigns employees to tasks The Consequences of consideration & structure  In general, research shows that consideration & initiating structure both contribute positively to employees motivation, of satisfaction and leader effectiveness  Consideration tends to be more strongly related to follower satisfaction, motivation & leader effectiveness  Initiating structure is slightly more strongly related to leader job & group performance  The importance of these two categories varies across situations Leader Reward & Punishment Behaviours Leader reward behaviour: provides employees w/ compliments, benefits and deserved special treatment  When rewards are contingent on performance, employees should perform at a high level & experience job satisfaction Leader Punishment Behaviour: Involves use of reprimands & unfavorable task assignment and active withholding of rewards, raises & promos  Punishment is really hard to use Situational Theories of Leadership  Refers to the setting in which influence attempts occur  Includes the characteristics of the employees, nature of the task, characteristics of the organization Fielder’s Contingency Theory & Cognitive Resource Theory Contingency Theory  States that the association between leadership orientation & group effectiveness is contingent on how favorable the situation is for the exerting influence  Says some situations are more favorable than others  Leadership orientation is measured by having leaders describe their least preferred co-worker (may be current or past)  The leader who describes the LPC relatively favorably (high LPC score) can be considered relationship oriented – hard to work w/ but can still find positive qualities  The leader who describes the LC unfavorably, can be considered task oriented Situational Favorableness  The contingency part of contingency theory that specifies when a particular LPC orientation should contribute most to group effectiveness Factors that affect situational favorableness…  Leader-member Relations: Poor relationship between leader & group damage leaders influence  Task Structure: Clear goal, clear procedures & straightforward performance measures  Position Power: Formal authority granted to the leader by the org to tell others what to do Cognitive Resource Theory  A leadership theory that focuses on the conditions in which a leader’s cognitive resources contribute to effective leadership  The importance of intelligence for leadership effectiveness depends on the defectiveness of the leader, group support for the leader, & the stressfulness of the situation House’s Path-Goal Theory  Robert House theories which is concerned w. the situation under which various leader behaviour are most effective  Says the most important activities of leaders are those that clarify the paths to various goals of interest to employees (promotion, sense of accomplishment, [pleasant work climate etc.)  The effective leader forms a connect between the employee goals & organizational goals Leader Behaviour Directive behaviour: Directive leaders schedule work, maintain performance standards & let employees know what’s expected of them Supportive Behaviour: These leaders are friendly, approachable and concerned w/ pleasant interpersonal relationships Participative Behaviour: Consult w/ employees about work related matters & consider their opinions Achievement-oriented Behaviour: Encourage employees to exert high effort & strive for high level of goal accomplishment * The effectiveness of each set of behaviours depends on the situation the leader encounters Situational Factors Includes environmental factors & employee characteristics Participative Leadership: Involving Employees in Decisions What is Participation? Participative Leadership: Involving employees in making work-related decisions  Can involve individual employee or whole group Potential Advantages  Motivation: Participation can
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