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Chapter 2

BUS 2090 Chapter 2 Notes

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BUS 2090

C HAPTER 2 W HAT IS PERSONALITY ? Personality: the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment PERSONALITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The approaches to personality 1. “dispositional approach” • Focuses on the dispositions and personality • individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours 2. “situational approach” • Factors in the work environment such as punishment influences peoples feelings, attitudes and behaviours Both approaches are important for predicting and understanding OB 3. “interactionist approach” or “interactionism” • OB is a function of both dispositions and situation • This approach is most widely accepted T HE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY (FFM) 1. Extraversion – this is the extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy. High extraverts enjoy social situations while those low on this dimension (introverts) avoid them 2. Emotional stability/ neuroticism – the degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control. People with a high emotional stability (low neuroticism) are self confident and have high self-esteem. Those with lower emotional stability (high neuroticism) tend toward self-doubt and depression 3. Agreeableness - the extent to which a person is friendly and approachable. More agreeable people are warm and considerate. Less agreeable people tend to be cold and aloof 4. Conscientiousness – the degree to which a person is responsible and achievement oriented. More conscientious people are dependable and positively motivates. Less conscientious people are unreliable 5. Openness to experience – the extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas. More open people tend toward creativity and innovation. Less open people favour the status quo • Evidence that each of the big five dimensions is related to: o job performance o work behaviours eg. Conscientiousness is related to retention and attendance at work and is also an important antidote for counterproductive behaviours such as theft o work motivation and job satisfaction L OCUS OF CONTROL Locus of control: a set of beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces High external control vs. High internal control High external control  behaviour determined by: fate, luck, powerful people High internal control  behaviour determined by: self-initiative, personal actions, free will 1 SELF -MONITORING Self-monitoring: the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships Low self-monitoring  act in a way they feel and say what they think in spite of their social surroundings High self-monitoring more involved in their jobs, perform at a higher level, more likely to be leaders they also tend to have more stress SELF -ESTEEM Self-esteem: the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation Behavioural plasticity theory: people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences more than those who have high self-esteem R ECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN PERSONALITY AND O RGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 1. positive and negative affectivity • positive affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a positive light eg. Cheerful, lively, sociable o report higher job satisfaction o higher job performance o found to be more creative at work o some evidence that PA is a key factor that links happiness to success in life and at work • negative affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people in a negative light eg. Distressed, depressed, unhappy • PA and NA are emotional dispositions that predict peoples general emotional tendencies 2. Proactive personality • Proactive behaviour: taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones • Proactive personality: a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in ones environment o People with it, search for and identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until they bring about meaningful change o Evidence showing sometimes more successful 3. General self-efficacy (GSE) • General self-efficacy: a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations o Motivational trait eg. High successes = high GSE 4. Core self-evaluations • Core self-evaluations: a broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth o Four traits already described in this chapter self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism o Higher self-evaluations = higher job satisfactions W HAT IS LEARNING ? • Learning: a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential that occurs due to practice or experience • Four primary categories: o practical skills 2  workshops, knowledge, technical competence o intrapersonal skills  problem solving, critical thinking, learning about new work processes, risk taking o interpersonal skills  communicating, teamwork, conflict resolution o cultural awareness  the social norms of organizations , understanding company goals, business operations and company expectations and priorities O PERANT LEARNING T HEORY Operant learning: the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences eg. 1930s Skinner taught rats to pull a lever that delivered food pellets INCREASING THE P ROBABILITY OF BEHAVIOUR Reinforcement: the process by which stimuli strengthen behaviours Positive reinforcement: the application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour eg. Food, praise, money Negative reinforcement: the removal of a stimulus that, in turn, increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour eg. Shock, nagging, or threat or fines Applying Positive Reinforcement • Make sure that the reward is reinforcing to that specific individual • Identify the correct behaviours to reinforce; don’t reinforce undesirable behaviours • Administer rewards so that high performers receive more than low performers • Don't reward wanted behaviour
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