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Chapter 3

BUS 2090 Chapter 3 Notes

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BUS 2090

CHAPTER 3 Perception attribution and diversityPerception the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environmentkeyword is interpreting helps sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by our senses of sight smell touch taste and hearing For example if you perceive your pay to be very low you might seek employment elsewhere EVEN if in reality you are the bestpaid person in your departmentthat doesnt matter if you are unaware of that factPerception has three components 1 The Perceiver the perceivers experiences needs and emotions can affect his or her perceptions of a target The most important characteristic of the perceiver is past experience bc it leads the perceiver to develop expectations which affect current perceptionsAlso our needs subconsciously influence our perception hungry perceivers will see more edible things in ambiguous picturesPerceptual defence the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions phenomenon of see what we want to see or hear what we want to hear2 The Target perception involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target and ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and additionPerceivers have a need to resolve such ambiguitiesProviding more information about the target does not always improve perceptual accuracy 3 The Situation every instance occurs in some situational context and this context can affect what one perceives For example a causal critical comment about your performance from your boss a week before she decides whether or not to promote you would be perceived differently if you were not up for promotion at all Social Identity Theory states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and membership in social categoriesPeople categorize themselves and others to make sense of the social environmentOnce we categorize people we tend to see members of that category as embodying the most typical attributes of that category called prototypesThis is how we develop a sense of who we arePeople tend to perceive the members of their own social categories in more favourable ways than those who are different which creates stereotyping and discrimination Bruners perceptual model follow dashes as if they were arrows Unfamiliar target encounteredopenness to target cuesfamiliar cues encounteredtarget categorizedcue selectivitycategorization strengthened Bruners model shows that perception is selective bc perceivers do not use all available cues only those that are familiar
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