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Chapter 4

BUS 2090 Chapter 4 Notes

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University of Guelph
BUS 2090

CHAPTER 4 SUMMARIES Values – a board tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others.  they are motivational since they signal the attractive aspects of our environment that we seek and the unattractive aspects that we try to avoid or change.  signals how we believe we should and should not behave Distinctive generations: often called the traditionalists, the baby boomers, generation X and the millennials (OR generation Y) Traditionalists – grew up in the shadow of two wars Baby boomers – faced a vibrant economy and the sexual revolution and the advent of rock and roll Gen X and Y – experienced more dual=career families and more divorce when growing up Popular press contains many stereotypes concerning the generations Traditionalists – portrayed as being respectful of authority and having a high work ethic Boomers: viewed as optimistic workaholics Gen X: seen as cynical, confident and pragmatic Gen Y: said to be confident, social, demanding of feedback and somewhat unfocused  the later of the two generations are seen as more accepting of diversity and striving for good work life balance and their comfort with technology is notable.  there is some indication that Gen X and Y are more inclined to value status and rapid career growth than are boomers; may reflect valuing what one does not have yet but could also reflect the positive self-esteem movement to which later generations have been exposed  Evidence Gen Ys especially value autonomy and that Xers compared to boomers are less loyal , more wanting of promotion and more inclined toward work-life balance.  More people value respect but for older employees this means being deferred to, while for Gen X and Y this means being listened to. Any generational differences in work values is important because: evidence that godo “fit” between a persons values and those of the organization (positiv0organization fit) leads to positive work attitudes and those of the organization (person-organization fit) leads to positive work attitudes and beahviours including reduced chances of quitting. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN VALUES Work centrality 1  Japan has a high work centrality. Belgians and Americans exhibited average work centrality and the British scored low  those with more central interest in work were more likely to report that they would continue working despite the new found wealth of winning the lottery.  People for whom work was a central life interest tended to work more hours. HOFSTEDE’S STUDY  Discovered 4 basic dimensions along which work related values differed across cultures: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/feminity and individualism/collectivism.  Consequent work with Canadian Michael bond that catered more to eastern cultures resulted in a fifth dimension: the long-term/short term orientation. Power distance: refers to the extent to which society members accept an unequal distribution of power including those who hold more power and those who hold less.  in small power distance cultures inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible and power differences are downplayed  in large power distance societies inequality is accepted as natural, superiors are inaccessible and power differences are highlighted  small power distance socities include: denmark, new Zealand, isreal and Austria  large power distance societies include: philipines, Venezuela and mexico  Canada and American rank 14 and 15, respectively falling on the low power distance side of the average which would be 20 Uncertainty avoidance: refers to the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations  strong uncertaincy avoidance cultures stress rules and regulations, ahrd work , conformity and security  cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance: less concerned with rules, conformity and security and hard work is not seen as a virtue  strong uncertainty avoidance cultures: include Japan, Greece and Portugal  weak uncertainty avoidance cultures: include Singapore, Denmark and Sweden  Caada and American are well below the average (i.e., exhibit ing weak uncertainty avoidance, ranking 9 or 10 out of 40) Masculinity/feminity  Japan is the most masculine society, followed by Austria, Mexico and Venezuela  The Scandinavian countries are the most feminine  Canada ranks about mid-pack and the united sates is fairly masculine, falling about halfway between Canada and Japan 2  The GLOBE research identifies two aspects to this dimension: how assertive people are and ho much they value gender equality Indidvidualim/collectivism: more indidvidualistic societies tend to stress independence, indidvidual initative and privacy.  more collective cultures favor independence and loyalty to ones family or clan  the united states, Australia, great Britain and Canada are among the most individualistic societies  Venezuela, Columbia, and Pakistan are among the most collective with Japan falling about mid-pack.  The GLOBE uncovers two aspects to this dimension: how much the collective distribution of resources is stressed and how much one’s group or organization elicits loyalty. Long term/short term orientation  cultures with long term orientation tend to stress persistence perseverance, thrift and close attention to status differences  cultures with a short term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, facesaving and social niceties  china, hong kong, Taiwan, japan and south korea tend to be characterized by a long term orientation  America, Canada, great Britain, Zimbabwe and Nigeria characterized by a more short term orientation  (hofstede and bond argue that the long term orientation in part explains prolific east Asian entrepreneurship) WHAT ARE ATTITUDES? Attitude: stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object situation, person or category of people.  attitudes involve evaluations directed toward specific targets.  Attitudes are a function of how we think and feel  product of a related belief and value  Measures of job satisfaction: Job descriptive index (JDI) – designed around 5 facets of job satisfaction. MSQ (Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire ); using a scale with various aspects of their job Discrepancy theory: a theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes and wanted a
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