CHAPTER 4 SUMMARIES
Values – a board tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others.
they are motivational since they signal the attractive aspects of our environment
that we seek and the unattractive aspects that we try to avoid or change.
signals how we believe we should and should not behave
Distinctive generations: often called the traditionalists, the baby boomers,
generation X and the millennials (OR generation Y)
Traditionalists – grew up in the shadow of two wars
Baby boomers – faced a vibrant economy and the sexual revolution and the advent
of rock and roll
Gen X and Y – experienced more dual=career families and more divorce when
Popular press contains many stereotypes concerning the generations
Traditionalists – portrayed as being respectful of authority and having a high work
Boomers: viewed as optimistic workaholics
Gen X: seen as cynical, confident and pragmatic
Gen Y: said to be confident, social, demanding of feedback and somewhat unfocused
the later of the two generations are seen as more accepting of diversity and
striving for good work life balance and their comfort with technology is notable.
there is some indication that Gen X and Y are more inclined to value status
and rapid career growth than are boomers; may reflect valuing what one
does not have yet but could also reflect the positive self-esteem movement to
which later generations have been exposed
Evidence Gen Ys especially value autonomy and that Xers compared to
boomers are less loyal , more wanting of promotion and more inclined
toward work-life balance.
More people value respect but for older employees this means being
deferred to, while for Gen X and Y this means being listened to.
Any generational differences in work values is important because: evidence that
godo “fit” between a persons values and those of the organization
(positiv0organization fit) leads to positive work attitudes and those of the
organization (person-organization fit) leads to positive work attitudes and
beahviours including reduced chances of quitting.
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN VALUES
1 Japan has a high work centrality. Belgians and Americans exhibited average
work centrality and the British scored low
those with more central interest in work were more likely to report that they
would continue working despite the new found wealth of winning the lottery.
People for whom work was a central life interest tended to work more hours.
Discovered 4 basic dimensions along which work related values differed
across cultures: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/feminity
Consequent work with Canadian Michael bond that catered more to eastern
cultures resulted in a fifth dimension: the long-term/short term orientation.
Power distance: refers to the extent to which society members accept an unequal
distribution of power including those who hold more power and those who hold
in small power distance cultures inequality is minimized, superiors are
accessible and power differences are downplayed
in large power distance societies inequality is accepted as natural, superiors
are inaccessible and power differences are highlighted
small power distance socities include: denmark, new Zealand, isreal and
large power distance societies include: philipines, Venezuela and mexico
Canada and American rank 14 and 15, respectively falling on the low power
distance side of the average which would be 20
Uncertainty avoidance: refers to the extent to which people are uncomfortable
with uncertain and ambiguous situations
strong uncertaincy avoidance cultures stress rules and regulations, ahrd
work , conformity and security
cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance: less concerned with rules,
conformity and security and hard work is not seen as a virtue
strong uncertainty avoidance cultures: include Japan, Greece and Portugal
weak uncertainty avoidance cultures: include Singapore, Denmark and
Caada and American are well below the average (i.e., exhibit ing weak
uncertainty avoidance, ranking 9 or 10 out of 40)
Japan is the most masculine society, followed by Austria, Mexico and
The Scandinavian countries are the most feminine
Canada ranks about mid-pack and the united sates is fairly masculine, falling
about halfway between Canada and Japan
2 The GLOBE research identifies two aspects to this dimension: how assertive
people are and ho much they value gender equality
Indidvidualim/collectivism: more indidvidualistic societies tend to stress
independence, indidvidual initative and privacy.
more collective cultures favor independence and loyalty to ones family or
the united states, Australia, great Britain and Canada are among the most
Venezuela, Columbia, and Pakistan are among the most collective with Japan
falling about mid-pack.
The GLOBE uncovers two aspects to this dimension: how much the collective
distribution of resources is stressed and how much one’s group or
organization elicits loyalty.
Long term/short term orientation
cultures with long term orientation tend to stress persistence perseverance,
thrift and close attention to status differences
cultures with a short term orientation stress personal steadiness and
stability, facesaving and social niceties
china, hong kong, Taiwan, japan and south korea tend to be characterized by
a long term orientation
America, Canada, great Britain, Zimbabwe and Nigeria characterized by a
more short term orientation
(hofstede and bond argue that the long term orientation in part explains
prolific east Asian entrepreneurship)
WHAT ARE ATTITUDES?
Attitude: stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object
situation, person or category of people.
attitudes involve evaluations directed toward specific targets.
Attitudes are a function of how we think and feel product of a related
belief and value
Measures of job satisfaction: Job descriptive index (JDI) – designed around 5
facets of job satisfaction. MSQ (Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire ); using
a scale with various aspects of their job
Discrepancy theory: a theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy
between the job outcomes and wanted a