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Chapter 8

BUS 2090 - Chapter 8 social influence, socialization and culture.docx

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BUS 2090

Chapter 8 – Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture Opening Example – Google Canada - co-founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin in 1998 - has more than 20 000 employees around the world & it’s employees speak dozen of languages - it has managed to maintain that small company feel thanks to a culture than includes: collaboration, a flat structure with very little hierarchy, kitchens that serve healthy food and encourage employees to eat together and socialize - the downtown Toronto office was built with the environment in mind. As part of the company’s green initiative, employees are encouraged to use public transportation, those that do so receive a monthly subsidy that is added to their pay - Google Canada has been ranked as the best place to work in Canada in 2009 thanks to a culture that emphasizes collaboration, innovation, transparency, and a commitment to environmental responsibility -the Google culture also encourages innovation through its “20 percent time” program, which allows employees to work together or separately on something other than their job for 1/5 days. This allows employees to work on new ideas and collaborate with each other. For example, Gmail & Google Outreach were a results of the 20 percent of the time program -the work culture of Google is very open, encouraging employees to ask questions, have input in who gets hired ect. Social Influence in Organizations -social norms hold an organization together, and conformity to these norms is a product of social influence -in social settings, people are highly dependent on others Information Dependence and Effect Dependence Information Dependence – reliance on others for information about how to think, feel and act - individuals are often motivated to compare their own thoughts, feelings and actions with those of others as a means of acquiring information about their adequacy Effect Dependence – Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishments. Individuals are dependent on the effects of their behaviours as determined by the rewards & punishments provided by others. Managers typically have a fair array of rewards and punishments available including – promotions, raises and the assignment of less favourable tasks Social Influence in Action Motives for Social Conformity Compliance – conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment. Primarily involves effect dependence. Identification – Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself. The individual identifies with the supporters & sees themselves similar to them. Ex – as children get older, they might be motivated to behave a certain way because that behaviour corresponds to that of an admired parent Internalization – Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values and attitudes that underline the norm. Conformity is due to internal, rather than external influences. Ex – we expect that most religious leaders conform to the norms of their religion for this reason The Subtle Power of Compliance - a compliant individual is doing something that is contrary to the way he or she thinks or feels. Ex – Individuals without religious beliefs or values might agree to be married in a church service to please others. - conformity may stop if the required behaviour is at great variance with one’s morals or standards - but, sometimes individuals just accepted the required behaviour/attitude/values *see example on page 254 Organizational Socialization Socialization – The process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization *see table on next page -new employees need to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to perform their job duties and tasks; they need to learn the appropriate behaviours and expectations of their role; they need to learn the norms and values of their work group; they need to learn about the organization -an important objective of organizational socialization is for newcomers to achieve a good fit -two kinds of fit a)Person – Job Fit: the match between an employee’s personal values and the values of an organization b)Person – Organization Fit – the match between an employee’s personal values and the values of an organization -research has found that both kinds of fit are strongly influenced by socialization and are important to the group & organization -one of the primary goals of organizational socialization is to ensure that new employees learn and understand the key beliefs, values and assumptions of the organization & for an individual to define them self in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent Organizational Identification – the extent to which an individual defines them self in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent Stages of Socialization -on-going process divided into 3 stages 1) Anticipatory Socialization – occurs before becoming a member of a particular organization. Some anticipatory socialization includes a formal process of skill and attitude acquisition (ex – when attending University). Other anticipatory socialization may be informal, such as that acquired through a series of summer jobs. 2) Encounter – Immediately follows entry. Formal aspects include, orientation programs. Informal aspects include getting to know one’s boss & co-workers. At this stage, the organization is looking for an acceptable degree of conformity to organizational norms and the gradual acquisition of appropriate role behaviour 3) Role Management – Occurs after a period of time. The new member’s attention shifts to fine tuning and actively managing their new role. Following some conformity to group norms, the new recruit might now be in a position to modify the role to better serve the organization. Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract -unrealistic expectations – research indicates that people entering organizations hold many expectations that are inaccurate and often unrealistically high -as a result, once they enter an organization they experience a reality shock and their expectations are not met Psychological Contract – beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them & their organization. For example, an employee might expect to receive bonuses & promotions in return for their hard-work & loyalty Psychological Contract Breach – employee perceptions that his or her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations of the psychological contact. -often results in feelings of anger & betrayal and can have a negative effect on employee’s work attitudes and behaviours -breach is related to affective reactions (higher feelings of contract violation and mistrust toward management), work attitudes (lower job satisfaction & organizational commitment) and work behaviours (lower organizational citizenship behaviour& job performance) -this occurs because of unrealistic expectations, recruiters are often tempted to promise more than their organization can provide to attract the best job applicants Methods of Organizational Socialization -organizations differ in terms of who does the socializing, how it is done, and how much is done a) Realistic Job Previews -the provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive & negative aspects of a job to applicants -provides “corrective action” to expectations at the anticipatory socialization stage *see page 259 -research shows that realistic job previews are effective in reducing inflated expectations and turnover reduction occurs -also appears that realistic job previews cause those not cut out for the job or have low P-J and P-O fit perceptions to withdraw from the application process – known as self- selection -As a result, applicants who perceive a good P-J and P-O fit are more likely to remain in the hiring process and to accept a job offer b) Employee Orientation Programs -programs designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they will be working with and the organization -a new type of orientation program that is designed to help newcomers cope with stress is called Realistic Orientation Program for Entry Stress (ROPES). Like a realistic job preview, ROPES provides newcomers with realistic information as well as teaches new comers how to use cognitive and behavioural coping techniques to manage workplace stressors -important method of socialization because they can have an immediate effect on learning and a lasting effect on the job attitudes and behaviours of new hires c) Socialization Tactics -once the orientation programs have ended, according to John Van Maanen and Edgar Schein, there are six socialization tactics that organizations can use to structure the early work experiences of new hires. 1) Collective versus individual tactics – When using collective tactics, a number of new members are socialized as a group, going through the same experiences and facing the same challenges – ex: army boot camps, frat pledge classes. Versus , Individual tactics – consist of socialization experiences that are tailor-made for each new member. 2) Formal versus informal tactics – Formal tactics involve segregating newcomers from regular organizational members and providing them with formal learning experiences during the period of socialization. Informal tactics do not distinguish a newcomer from more experienced members and rely more on informal and on-the-job learning. 3) Sequential versus random tactics – Sequential versus random tactics have to do with whether there is a clear sequence of steps or stages during the socialization process. With a sequential tactic, there is a fixed sequence of steps leading to the assumption of
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