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Chapter 9

BUS 2090 - Chapter 9 Leadership.docx

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BUS 2090

Chapter 9: Leadership What is leadership? Leadership: the influence that particular individuals e the goal achievement of others in an organization - Exerts influence in a way that achieves organizational goals by enhancing the productivity, innovation, satisfaction and commitment of the workforce - Some members are in a better position to be leaders than others - those with titles such as manager, executive, supervisor, department head occupy formal or assigned leadership roles - As part of these roles they are expected to influence others, and are given specific authority to direct employees - Some managers and supervisors fail to exert any influence on others – these people will usually be judged to be ineffective leaders, therefore leadership involves going beyond formal role requirements to influence others RESEARCH ON LEADERSHIP TRAITS Traits: individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability and personality - Research has shown that many traits are not associated with whether people become leaders or how effective they are, however some traits are associated with leadership - Traits associated with leadership effectiveness: intelligence, energy, self-confidence, dominance, motivation to lead, emotional stability,, honesty and integrity, need for achievement - Notice that the list portrays a high energy person who really wants to have an impact on other but at the same time is smart and stable enough not to abuse his or her power - Research shows that certain traits are more closely linked to leadership emergence and effectiveness - Firms use personality tests and assessment centres to measure leadership[ traits when making hiring and promotion decisions LIMITATIONS OF THE TRAIT APPROACH - Several reasons why it is not the best means of understanding and improving leadership - It is difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or whether the opportunity for leadership produces the traits - Failure to take into account the situation in which leadership occurs - Although there are some traits that are associated with leadership success, traits alone are not sufficient for successful leadership - Traits are only a precondition for certain actions that a leader must take to be successful LESSONS FROM EMERGENT LEADERSHIP - The study of emergent leadership gives us some good clues about what formally assigned or appointed leaders must do to be effective - Leadership is a form of influence, therefore the one that talks to most in the group is usually the one who is perceived as the leader - Also the person who is liked the most in the group Task leader: a leader who is concerned with accomplishing a task by organizing others, planning strategy, and dividing labour - Most concerned with accomplishing the task at hand Social-emotional leader: a leader who is concerned with reducing tension, patching up disagreements, settling arguments and maintaining morale - Sometimes these two leadership roles are taken on by the same person, or two different people. Those people will work will together because they respect the others complementary skills - Important that a leader focuses on both the task and emotional function THE BEHAVIOURS OF ASSIGNED LEADERS CONSIDERATION AND INITIATING STRUCTURE Consideration: the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for employees - Consideration leader is friendly, egalitarian, expresses appreciation and support, and is protective of group welfare Initiating structure: the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment - Clearly defines and organizes his or her role and the roles of followers, stresses standard procedures, schedules the work to be done, and assigns employees to particular tasks - Initiating structure is related to the task function revealed in studies of emergent leadership THE CONSEQUENCES OF CONSIDERATION AND STRUCTURE - Research shows the consideration and initiating structure both contribute positively to employees motivation, job satisfaction, and leader effectiveness - Consideration tends to be more strongly related to follower satisfaction, motivation, and leader effectiveness, while initiating structure is slightly more strongly related to leader job performance an group performance LEADER REWARD AND PUNISHMENT BEHAVIOURS Leader reward behaviours: the leaders use of complements, tangible benefits and deserves special treatment - When such rewards are made contingent on performance, employees should perform at a high level and experience job satisfaction - They have a clear picture of what is expected of them, and they understand that positive outcomes will occur if they achieve these expectations Leader punishment behaviour: the leader’s use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and the active withholding of rewards SITUATIONAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP - Basic premise of situational theories of leadership ist hat the effectiveness of a leadership style is contingent on the setting. The setting includes the characteristics of the employees, the nature of the task they are performing and characteristics of the organization Fiedlers Contingency Theory: theory states that the associations between leadership orientation and group effectiveness are contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence. - Some situations are more favourable for leadership than others and these situations require difference orientations on the part of the leader Leadership orientation: Fiedler has measures leadership orientation by having leaders describe their Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) – a current or past co-worker with whom a leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a task - To obtain a LPC score, the troublesome co-worker is described on eighteen scales in the following nature – pleasant to unpleasant, friendly to unfriendly - Leader who describes LPC relatively favourable can be considered relationship oriented, despite the fact that the LPC is or was difficult to work with, the leader can still find positive qualities in him or her - The leader who describes the LPC unfavourable (low LPC score) can be considered task oriented. This person allows the low-task competence of the LPC to colour his or her views of the personal qualities of the LPC - Fiedler says LPC score reveals a personality trait that reflects the leaders motivational structure - The LPC score is not a measure of consideration or initiating structure Situational favourableness: the contingency part of contingency theory - Favourable leadership situation exists when the leader has a high degree of control and when the results of this control are very predictable - Factors that affect situational favourableness in order of importance are the following: - Leader- member relations – when relationship between the leader and the group members is good, the leader is in a favourable situation to exert influence. A poor relationship should damage the leaders influence and even lead to insubordination or sabotage - Task structure – when the task is highly structures, the leader should be able to exert considerable influence on the group - Position power – formal authority granted to the leader by the organization to tell others what to do. The more they hold, the more favourable the leadership situation is Contingency Model: predictions of leader effectiveness from Fiedlers Continge
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