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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 HR

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University of Guelph
BUS 3000
Nita Chhinzer

Chapter Human Resources Management DesigningAnalyzing JobsORGANIZING WORK FOR STRATEGIC SUCCESSRelationships between peopletasks must be structured so that the organization achieves its strategic goals in an efficienteffective manner Organizational Structure The formal relationships among jobs in an organization Organizational Chart A snapshot of the firm depicting the organizations structure in chart form at a particular point in time Uses connecting lines to clarify the chain of commandshows who is accountable to whomIn organizations using selfmanaged work teams employees jobs change dailyJOB DESIGNIn most organizations today work is divided into manageable units and then most likely into individual jobsJob Design The process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a specific job Job Consists of a group of related activitiesduties which ideally a job should be clear and distinct from others Position The collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person RE6SHFLDOLDWLRQQGXVWULDOQJLQHHULQJ Work simplification evolved from scientific management theoryBased on the premise that work can be broken down into clearly defined highly specialized and repetitive tasks to maximize efficiencyWork simplification can increase operating efficiency in a stable environment and may be very appropriate in settings employing people with disabilities or lacking education and trainingSometimes results in lower satisfaction higher rates of absenteeismturnover etc Industrial EngineeringA field of study concerned with analyzing work methods making work cycles more efficient by modifying combining rearranging or eliminating tasks and establishing time standardsToo much emphasis on the concerns of industrial engineering improving efficiencysimplifying work methods may result in human considerations being neglected or downplayed HKDYLRXUDOVSHFWVRIREHVLJQProposed remedies for dehumanizing aspects of highly respective jobs Job Enlargement Horizontal Loading A technique to relieve monotony and boredom that involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase theof tasks they perform Job RotationInvolves systematically moving employees from one job to another Workers experience more task variety motivation and productivity Job Enrichment Vertical Loading Any effort that makes an employees job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties Can do some by increasing difficulty level assigning more authority adding new tasks etc TeamBased Job DesignTeambased job designs focus on giving a team rather than a single person a whole and meaningful piece of work to doBest suited to flat and matrix organization structures UJRQRPLFVSHFWVRIREHVLJQ Ergonomics Seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of workers into the design of jobsAims to adapt the entire job systemthe work environment machines equipment and processto match human characteristicsErgonomics also can aid in meeting the unique requirements of people with special needs such as older people and those with disabilities QFUHDVLQJREOHLELOLWCompanies now are struggling with challenges such as rapid producttechnological change global competition deregulation political instability demographic change etc firms now have to be flexible
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