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Chapter 9

Chapter 9: Ionic and Covalent Bonds

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CHEM 1040
Abdelaziz Houman

Ionic and Covalent Bonds CHAPTER 9Describing Ionic Bonds 91 Salts being first explanation of substances that are ionicIonic Bond is a chemical bond formed by the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ionsBond forms between two atoms when one or more electrons are transferred from the valence shell of one atom to the valence shell of anotherAtom losing electrons is a cation negative ionAtom gaining electrons is a anion positive ionIonic solid is when large number of ions gather together opposite charges Lewis ElectronDot Symbols is a symbol in which the electrons in the valence shell of an atom or ion are represented by dots placed around the letter symbol of the elementForming ions required additional energy equal to atleast 147 kJmolCoulombs Law the energy E obtained in bringing two ions with electric charges Q 1and Q from infinite separation to a distance r apart is 292k is the physical constant equal to 899 x 10 JmC C is the symbol for Coulomb 19e1602 x 10 Negative value means energy released positive means energy is required To get energy for the formation of one ion pair you multiple Avogadros 23number 6o2 x 10Lattice Energy is the change in energy that occurs when an ionic solid is separated into isolated ions in the gas phase ex NaCl NaClsggTwo elements bond ionically if the ionization energy of one is small and the electron affinity of the other is large and negativeLattice Energies from the BornHaber Cycle 5step process 1 Sublimation of sodium solid to gas 2 Dissociation of chlorine dissociation to atoms 3 Ionization of sodium sodium atoms are ionized to Na ions 4 Formation of chloride ion The electrons fro the ionization of sodium atoms are transferred to chlorine atoms 5 Formation of NaCl s from ions ions Na and Cl formed I steps 3 and 4 combine to give a solid sodium chlorideprocess is reverse of lattice energy so enthalpy change is the negative of the lattice energyProperties of Ionic Substances Ionic substances have high melting pointsCoulombs interactions depend on the product of the ion charges
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