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Chapter 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.6

CHEM 1050 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.6: State Function, Thermodynamics, Endothermic Process


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1050
Professor
Lori Jones
Chapter
6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.6

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Monday, January 16, 2017
Chem1050
Thermochemistry
-Nearly all chemical reactions involve either the release or the absorption of heat, a
form of energy
UNDERSTANDING HEATS OF REACTION
-Thermodynamics = the science of the relationships between heat and other forms of
energy
-Thermochemistry = one area of thermodynamics that concerns the study of the
quality of heat absorbed or evolved (given off) by chemical reactions
-Knowing such values, you are able to calculate the amount of energy needed to
break a particular kind of chemical bond and so learn something about the strength of
that bond
-Heat measurements also provide data needed to determine whether a particular
chemical reaction occurs and if so, to what extent
6.1 energy and its units
-Energy = the potential or capacity to move matter
-Energy is a property of matter not a material thing
-Exists in different forms that can be interconverted
-Energy can exist in different forms, including heat, light and electrical energy and
these different forms can be interconverted
-Kinetic energy = energy of motion
KINETIC ENERGY; UNITS OF ENERGY
-Kinetic energy = the energy associated with an object by virtue of its motion (Ek)
-This formula shows that the kinetic energy of an object depends on both its mass and
its speed
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Monday, January 16, 2017
-Calorie (cal) = a non-SI unit of energy commonly used by chemists, originally defined
as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by
one degree Celsius
-Energy needed to heat water depends slightly on the temperature of the water
-1 cal = 4.184 J
POTENTIAL ENERGY
-Potential energy = the energy an object has by virtue of its position in a field of force
(Ep)
-Only differences of potential energy are important in any physical situation
-Example: potential energy decreases and kinetic energy increases when water falls
over a dam
INTERNAL ENERGY
-Internal energy = the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the particles
making up a substance (U)
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
-Law of conservation of energy = energy may be converted form one form to
another, but the total quantity of energy remains constant; energy is conserved
-When water falls over a dam, potential energy is converted to kinetic energy
-First law of thermodynamics
6.2 First Law of Thermodynamics; Work and Heat
-Relates the change in internal energy of a physical or chemical change taking place
in a container to the flows (transfers) of energy into or out of the container
-Energy transfers: work and heat
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