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Chapter 6

Chapter 6: thermochemistry

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CHEM 1050
Richard Delaat

Chapter 6 Thermochemistry 61 energy and its units y Nearly all chemical reactions involve either release or absorption of heat y Energy the potential of capacity to move matter existing in different forms that can be interconverted forms include heat light and electrical 2y Kinetic energy energy associated with an object by virtue of its motion E12mv kkinetic energy depends on mass and speed J y Calorie nonSI unit of energy amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius 1 cal4184J y Potential energy energy an object has by virtue of its position in a field of force Emgh pas an object falls E decreases and E increases pky Internal energy sum of kinetic and potential energy of particles making up a substance U E E E U totk py Law of conservation of mass energy may be converted from one form to another but the total quantity of energy remains constant 62 Heat of reaction y Thermodynamic system the substance or mixture of substances under study in which in which a change occurs y Surroundings everything in the vicinity of the thermodynamic system y Heat the energy that flows in and out of a system because of a difference in temperature between the thermodynamic system and its surroundings assuming system and surroundings are in contact y Heat flows between system and surroundings to establish temperature equality or thermal equilibrium flows from high temperature to low temperature when temperatures become equal energy flow stops y When heat flows into a system system has an increase in internal energy system doesnt have heat heat is only energy flow y Absolute temperature of a gas is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules adding heat to a gas will increase its internal energy therefore increasing its kinetic energy y q heat q heat is absorbed by system q heat is evolved y heat of reaction at a given temperature the value of q required to return a system to the given temperature at the completion of the reactiony Exothermic process chemical reaction or a physical change in which heat is evolved q is negative reaction flask would initially warm
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