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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - Thermochemistry

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University of Guelph
CHEM 1050
Dennis Baker

Chapter 6ThermochemistryThermodynamics is the science of the relationships between heat and other forms of energy Thermochemistry is one area of thermodynamics It concerns the study of the quantity of heat absorbed or evolved given off by chemical reactions 61 Energy and its UnitsEnergy the potential or capacity to move matter it is not a material thing but rather a property of matter it exists in different forms that can be interconvertedKinetic energy is the energy associated with an object by virtue of its motion SI unit joule J a very small unit2this shows that the kinetic energy of an object depends both on its mass andE12mv kits speed Potential energy is the energy an object has by virtue of its position in a field of force EmghPOnly the differences of potential energy are important in any physical situationInternal Energy is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the particles making up a substance UEEEUTOTKPLaw of Conservation of Energy energy may be converted from one form to another but the total quantity of energy remains constant 62 Heat of ReactionSystem the substance or mixture of substances under study in which a change occurs Surroundings everything in the vicinity of the thermodynamic systemHeat the energy that flows into or out of a system because of a difference in temperature between the thermodynamic system and its surroundings As long as a system and its surroundings are in thermal contact not insulated energy heat flows between them to establish temperature equality or thermal equilibrium Heat flows from a region of higher temperature to one of lower temperature once the temperatures become equal heat flow stops Once heat flows into a system it appears in the system as an increase in its internal energyDifference between heat and temperature according to kinetic theory the absolute temperature of a gas is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules When you add heat to as gas you increase its internal energyand therefore its total kinetic energy This increase in kinetic energy will be distributed over the molecules in the sample Therefore the increase in average kinetic energy per molecule and thus the increase in temperature depends on the size of the gas sample A given quantity of heat will raise the temperature of a sample more if the sample is small Heatq and is positive if heat is absorbed by the system and negative if heat is evolved
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