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Chapter 2

CIS 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Toner, Embedded System, Touchpad

Computing and Information Science
Course Code
CIS 1000
Jing Yu Zhu

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Looking at Computers: Understanding the Parts
Computers Are Data Processing Devices
A data processing device that performs FOUR major
1. It gathers data, or allows users to input data.
2. It processes that data into information.
3. It outputs data and information
4. It stores data and information
Difference between data and information?
o Data a representation of a fact, a figure, or an idea.
Can be a number, a word, a picture, or even a
o Information data that has been organized or
presented in a meaningful fashion (contact listing: Zoe
Computers are excellent at processing (manipulating,
calculating, or organizing) data into information.
Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers
Binary language consists of just two digits: 0 and 1.
Everything a computer does, such as processing data or
printing, is broken down into a series of 0s and 1s.
o Each 0 and 1 is a binary digit, or bit for short.
Eight binary digits (or bits) combine to create
one byte. Each letter of the alphabet, each
number, and each special character (@) consists
of a unique combination of eight bits, or a string
of eight 0s and 1s.
Kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes are simply amounts of
o Kilobyte (KB) is approx. 1,000 bytes
o Megabyte (MB) is approx. 1,000,000 bytes
o Gigabyte (GB) is approx. 1 billion bytes
o Terabyte (TB) is approx. 1 trillion bytes
Personal computers today store TBs of data while
many business computers can store up to a PB of
o Petabyte (PB), Exabyte (EB), Zettabyte (ZB)
Computers use a combo of hardware and software to process
data into information
o Hardware any part of the computer you can
physically touch

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o Software set of computer programs that enable the
hardware to perform different tasks. Two broad
categories of software:
Application software the set of programs you
use on a computer to help you carry out tasks
such as writing a research paper
System software the set of programs that
enables your computer’s hardware devices and
application software to work together. The most
common type of system software is the
operating system (OS) the program that
controls the way in which your computer system
functions. It manages the hardware of the
computer system (monitor, printer etc.)
Your Computer’s Hardware
There are two basic designs of computers: portable and
o A notebook computer (or laptop computer) is a
portable computer that is powered by batteries and has
a keyboard, monitor, etc integrated into a single
compact case.
A netbook is a small, lightweight notebook
computer that is generally 7 to 10 inches wide
and has a longer battery life than a notebook
A tablet PC is similar to a notebook but features
a touch-sensitive screen that can swivel and fold
o A desktop computer is intended for use at a single
location, and therefore, is stationary. They consist of a
separate case that houses the main components of the
computer plus peripheral devices (a component, such
as a monitor or keeyboard) that is connected to the
An all-in-one computer (such as the Apple iMac)
houses not just the computer’s processor and
memory but also its monitor.
o Other computers:
A mainframe is a large, expensive computer that
supports hundreds of users simultaneousy (often
used in insurance companies where multiple
people are working at once)

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A supercomputer is a specifically designed
computer that can perform complex calculations
extremely rapidly. Used in situations in which
complex models requiring intensive mathematical
calculations are needed (such as weather
forecasting or atomic energy research). Designed
to execute a few programs as quickly as possible
where as mainframes are designed to handle
many programs at same time but at slower pace.
An embedded computer is a specifically
designed computer chip that resides in another
device, such as your car or the electronic
thermostat in your home. They are self-contained
computing devices that have their on
programming and typically do not receive input
from other systems
Input Devices
An input device enables you to enter data (text, images,
sounds) and instructions (user responses and commands) into
the computer.
o Most common input devices are the keyboard and the
A keyboard is used to enter typed data and
A mouse is used to enter user responses and
o Microphones input sounds and digital cameras input
non-digital text and images
o A stylus is an input device used like a mouse or pen to
tap commands or draw on a screen. Electronic pens are
also becoming popular in conjunction with graphics
tablets that can translate handwriting.
o Most desktop/notebook computers come with a
standard QWERTY keyboard.
Alternate keyboard layout is the Dvorak keyboard
that puts the most commonly used letters in the
English language on the “home keys” (the keys in
the middle row). It reduces distance your fingers
have to travel
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