CIS 1000 Chapter 13: Chapter 13 CIS 1000

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CIS – Chapter 13 – The Internet: How it Works
 Major Orgs involved in Internet – chart page 624
Internet Backbone – main paths on the internet in which data travels the faster
o Owned by commercial, educational or gov’t
o Are required to be connected to other backbone providers to have the fastest high-speed connections
T Lines – carried digital data over twisted pair wires – used In the past, then t1 and t3
OC (optical carrier) lines – used today on the backbone
Network Access Points were designed to move large amounts of data quickly between networks
Internet exchange points – IXPs – are the current ones – made up of one or more network switches to
which ISP’s connect
Point of Presence (POP) – bank of modems through which many users can connect to an ISP
 Majority of the internet communications follows the client /server of network communications
Web Server – computers that run specialized operating systems that enable them to host web pages and
provide requested web pages to clients
o Commerce servers – enable purchase of goods and services
o File servers – provide remote storage space or to act as a storehouse for files
Computer protocol –is a set of rules for exchanging electronic information
Open systems – meaning their designs would be made public for access by anyone
Proprietary systems – private systems – were the norm at the time
 Three biggest internet tasks -> communicating, seeking info, shopping
Circuit Switching – dedicated connection is formed between two points and remains active during the
o Is inefficient for computers – since processes take place in bursts
Don’t stay connected to each thing long enough – wasteful
Packet Switching – is the communication methodology that makes computer communication efficient
o Doesn’t require a dedicated communications circuit to be maintained
o Data is broken into packets, that are sent over various routes at the same time
o Packets must contain:
An address to which the packet is being sent
Reassembling instructions if the original data was split between packets
Data that is being transmitted
TCP/IP – main suit of protocols used on Internet – transmission control protocol (TCP) and the internet
protocol (IP) – comprises many interrelated protocols – page 629 chart
IP Addresses:
o Unique identification number that defines each computer, service or other device that connects to the
o Fulfill the function as street addresses
o Must be registered with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
o Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) – would quickly run out of IP addresses
o Classless inter domain routing - CIDR – was developed
Allows a single IP address to represent several unique IP addresses by adding a network prefix to the end of
the last octet
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