Intro to Computer Applications.docx

187 views35 pages
Published on 23 Nov 2012
School
University of Guelph
Department
Computing and Information Science
Course
CIS 1000
Professor
Database databsdetailIntro to Computer Applications
Chapter 1: Why Computers Matter to You: Becoming Computer Literate
- Computer literate: being familiar enough with computers that you understand their
capabilities and limitations
- Chart on pg. 4
- Data Mining: process of searching huge amounts of data with the hope of finding a
pattern
- Bluetooth Technology: A type of wireless communication to transmit the scanned data
through radio waves to a terminal (Maxicode in UPS shipping, etc)
- Computer forensics: a specialty that analyzes computer systems with specific
techniques to gather potential legal evidence
- Radio Frequency Identification Tags (RFID): agricultural outbreaks can be managed
and minimized.
- Patient simulator: life-sized computer-controlled mannequins that can speak, breathe,
and blink; Pulse and heartbeat and respond just like humans to procedures such as
administration of intravenous drugs
- Braingate Neural Interface: implanted in the patient’s brain, a signal converter
recognizes patterns and then translates them into commands to a robotic arm.
- Nanometers: involves the study of molecules and structures (called nanostructures); one
billionth of a meter
- Nanotechnology: the science of using nanostructures to build devices on an extremely
small scale (wrinkle cream, etc)
- Affective Computing: is computering that relates to emotion or deliberately tries to
influence emotion
- Digital Divide: The discrepancy between those who have access to the opportunities and
knowledge computers and the internet offer and those who do not.
- Digital Home: A home that has televisions and other technological devices all hooked to
a center home network.
- Offshored: The process of sending jobs previously performed in the U.S. to other
countries
- Public domain: the status of software that is not protected by copyright.
- Software : the set of computer programs or instructions that tells the computer what to
do and enables it to perform different tasks
- Spam: unwanted or junk email
Having an international population armed with cameras and a means to
quickly distribute their video allows the invisible to become visible in
many ways. The Witness Project, founded by Peter Gabriel, uses this
strategy to stop human rights abuses throughout the world. Their slogan is
“See it. Film it. Change it.” And video from the Witness Project has
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changed many lives; for example, it contributed to the arrest of warlords in
the Democratic Republic of Congo for the recruitment of child soldiers.
Chapter 2: The History of the PC
- All in one computer: a desktop system unity that houses the computer’s processor,
monitor, and memory in a single unit
- Application software: the set of programs on a computer that helps a user catty out takss
such as word processing, sending email, balancing a budget, creating presentations,
editing photos, taking an online course, and playing games
- Aspect ratio: the width-to-height proportion of a monitor
- Binary digit (bit): a digit that corresponds to the on and off states a computers switches;
either 0 or 1
- Binary language: language that computers use to process data; 0 or 1
- blue ray disc (BD): method of optical storage for digital data; developed for storing high
definition media; largest storage capacity of all optical storage
- Bluetooth: a type of wireless technology that uses radio waves to transmit dayta over
short distances (30 ft Bluetooth 1, 60 feet Bluetooth 2); often used to connect peripherals
such as printers and keyboards to computers or headsets to cell phones
- Brightness; measure of the greatest amount of light showing when a monitor is
displaying pure white/ candelas per square meter
- Byte; eight binary digits (bits)
- Compact disc (CD); method of optical storage; originally developed for storing digital
audio
- Central processing unit (CPU or processer); the part of the system unit of a computer
that is responsible for data processing (brains); largest and most important chip in the
computer; all processes, commands and functions.
- Cold boot; process of starting a computer from a powered down or off state
- Connectivity port; a port that enables the computer to be connected to other systems
(modems, internet)
- Contrast ratio; measure of the difference in light intensity
- Cursor control key; set of controls on standard keyboards that moves the cursor;
flashing symbol; when next character is to be added
- Desktop computer: regular computer; only use in one location
- Digital video for versatile disc (DVD); greater storage capacity than CDs
- Digital video interface (DVI); video interface technology that newer LCD monitors (and
other devices) use to connect to a PC
- Drive bay; special shelf in a computer that holds special storage devices
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- Embedded computer; specially designed computer chip that resides inside another
device, such as a car
- Ergonomics; how computer is set up to reduce injury, etc
- Ethernet port; port that is slightly larger than a standard phone jack and transfers data at
speeds of up to 10,000 mbps used to connect a computer to a DSL or cable modem
- Expansion card (adapter card); circuit board with specific functions that augment the
computer’s basic functions and provide connections to other devices (sound card, video
card)
- External hard drive; an internal hard drive that is enclosed in a protective case
- FireWire 400; interface transport that transfers data at 400 mbps
- FireWire 800; fastest interface transport; 800 mbps
- Flash drive (jump drive, USB, or thumb drive); drive that plugs into a USB port and
stores data
- Flash memory card; form of portable storage; removable memory card often in digital
cameras, PDAS, etc
- Flat-panel monitor; lighter and more energy efficient than CRT monitor, often in
notebook computers
- Gigabyte (GB); a billion bytes (speed)
- Gigahertz (GHz); a billion hertz (physical memory)
- Hibernate; power saving mode that saves current state of system into the hard drive
- High definition multimedia interface (HDMI); compact audio video interface standard
that carries both high definition video and uncompressed digital audio
- Impact printer; creates an image by using some mechanism to physically press an inked
ribbon against the page, causing the ink to be deposited on the page in the shape desired.
These printers are typically loud, but remain in use today because of their unique ability
to function with multipart forms
- Inkjet printer; non-impact printer that sprays tiny bits of ink
- Input device; hardware device to enter data (keyboard, mice)
- Internal hard drive; hard drive installed in the system unit
- Kilobyte (KB); = one thousand bytes
- Laser printer; nonimpact printer quick and quiet high quality printing
- Legacy technology; comprises computing devices , software or peripherals and
techniques from a previous time that are no longer popular
- Liquid crystal display (LCD); technology used in flat panel monitors
- Mainframe; large expensive computer that supports hundreds or thousands of users
simultaneously and executes different programs at the same time
- Megabyte (MB); unit of computer storage; 1 million bytes
- Megahertz (MHz); processing speed; 1 million hertz
- Modem card; expansion card that provides the computer with a connection to the
internet via conventional phone lines
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Document Summary

Chapter 1: why computers matter to you: becoming computer literate. Computer literate: being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and limitations. Data mining: process of searching huge amounts of data with the hope of finding a pattern. Bluetooth technology: a type of wireless communication to transmit the scanned data through radio waves to a terminal (maxicode in ups shipping, etc) Computer forensics: a specialty that analyzes computer systems with specific techniques to gather potential legal evidence. Radio frequency identification tags (rfid): agricultural outbreaks can be managed and minimized. Patient simulator: life-sized computer-controlled mannequins that can speak, breathe, and blink; pulse and heartbeat and respond just like humans to procedures such as administration of intravenous drugs. Braingate neural interface: implanted in the patient"s brain, a signal converter recognizes patterns and then translates them into commands to a robotic arm. Nanometers: involves the study of molecules and structures (called nanostructures); one billionth of a meter.

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