CIS 1200 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Systems Development Life Cycle, Programming Language, Software Projects

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1. Chapter 10: Software Programming
Information system: includes data, people, procedures, hardware, and software that
help in planning and decision making
System development life cycle (SDLC)
1. Step 1: Problem/Opportunity Identification
1. Corporations usually generate more ideas for systems than they have the
time and money to implement
2. Steering committees evaluate systems development proposals
3. Process is documents and relevant problems/opportunities are defined
2. Step 2: Analysis
1. Analysts explore the problem to be solved and develop a program
specification
2. Project specification: a clear statement of the goals and objectives of the
project at hand
3. Feasibility assessment is performed
4. Feasible projects are studied by analysts to define user requirements of
the proposed system
5. Finally, analysts recommend a solution or plan of action
3. Step 3: Design
1. The current and proposed systems are documented using flowcharts and
data-flow diagrams
4. Step 4: Development and documentation
1. Actual programming takes place
2. First part of the program development life cycle
5. Step 5: Testing and Installation
1. Tests and results are documented
6. Step 6: Maintenance and Evaluation
1. Installed system performance must be monitored
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Scope creep: an ever-changing set of requests from clients for additional features as
they wait longer and longer to see a working prototype
Program development life cycle (PDLC)
7. Programming: the process of translating a task into a series of commands a
computer will use to perform that task
1. Identifying which parts of a task a computer can perform
2. Describing those tasks in a very specific and complete manner
3. Translating this description into the language spoken by the computer’s
CPU
8. Describing the problem
1. First step is to develop a problem statement
2. Programmers must also include what the program should do if the input
data is nonsense, a process called error handling
3. Includes a plan that lists specific input numbers the program predicts the
user to enter, called a testing plan
4. Then lists exact output values that are produced by the input values
5. The goal in creating a useful problem statement is to describe three things
relevant to creating a useful program:
1. Data (input)
2. Information (output)
3. Method (process)
9. Developing an algorithm
1. Algorithm: a set of specific, sequential steps that describe in natural
language exactly what the computer program must do to complete its task
2. Limitations to algorithms
1. We know exactly what step to take next
2. BUT not all problems ca be described as a fixed sequence of
predetermined steps
3. Two main types of decisions change the flow of an algorithm:
1. Branch
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1. Called binary decisions because they can be answered in one of
only two ways: true or false
2. Repeating loop
1. Three important features:
1. Initial value: a beginning point
2. A set of actions that will be performed
3. A test condition: a check to see whether the loop is completed
2. In a loop, a question is asked and if the answer is yes, the set of
actions is performed
3. Once the action is complete, the question is asked again
4. Performance will continue until the answer is no
5. Control structure: the general term used for keywords in a
programming language that allow programmer to direct the flow of
program based on decision
3. Flowcharts
1. Provide a visual representation of the patterns and algorithm
follows
2. Shape symbols
1. Diamonds = binary decision
2. Rectangles = process
3. Parallelogram = Input/output
4. Oval = Terminate
5. Direct line = Direction of flow
4. Pseudocode
1. A text-based approach to documenting an algorithm
2. Words describe the actions that the algorithm will take
3. Combination of natural language and special words that are
commands in the programming language they’re using
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