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Canada (161,777)
CLAS 2000 (55)
John Walsh (55)
Chapter 5

CLAS 2000 Chapter 5: Chapter 5

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Classical Studies
CLAS 2000
John Walsh

The Welve Olympian: Zues; Herta and THEIRD CHILDREN  Frinedhship towards Gods does not admit = reciprocit, not even a one sided friendships Zeus is established  Lord of gods and men, he does share his power with his brothers;  He assumes sky, PoSeidon the sea nad Hades; the underworld  Zeus takes Hera as his wife, she riengs by his side as queen and subordinate  Hestia and Demeter share in dinvine power and functions;  Cirlceo f Major Dieties o Zeus Jupiter o Hera: Juno o Poseidon Neptune o Hades Pluto o Hestia Vesta o Hephaestus Vulcan o Ares Mars o Apollo o Artemis o Demeter Ceres o Alphrodite Venus o Athena Minverva o Hermes Mercury o Dionysus Bachhus  12 excludes Hades, whose relam is under the earth, nad rplace Hestia with Dionysus; diety who comes late Hestia: Goddess of the Heart and its Fire  Mythology of her is meager; she is important  Rejected advances of Poseidon and Apollo  Voed = virgin like Athen and Arthems  Goddess; of Chastity, Hearth and its Sacred Fire  Hestia is greek word for Hearth o Among primitive people, fire was hard to obtain, kept alive and rever for basic importnance indaily needs, hearth too was the center first of the family, then of larger political units, tribe, city and state o Transmission of fire form one tribe or are to another settlement = continuing bond of affection nad kindship  Domestic and communal hearth = hoyl and goddess hserlf rpresided over then  Hestia= precedence at banquets, sacred ritual, for the first born of Cronus and Rhea; she was considered august, older generation of Gods  Homeric Hmnns to Hestia; number 24; calls her persondificaiton of protecting flame of the sacared hearth in a temple  Homeric 29: invoked as protectress of heart in the home, appeal to the god Hermes, since both dieties protect the hosue and bring good fortune  Offer honey sweet wine as libation to Hestia first and last Cronus and Rhea  Hestia  Hera and Zeus o Hebe, Hepheasteus, Ares and Eiliethiya  Posidon  Demeter  Hades  Zeus and Metis o Athena  Zeus and Leto o Apollo and Artemis  Zeus and Maia o Hermes  Zeus and Dione o Aphridite  Zeus and Semele o Dionysus Diverse Cahracter of Zeus  Zeus is passionately amorous o Mates with countless goddess, and his offspring = legion o Most genealogies demanded glory and authrotiy of the supreme god himself as ultimate progeinator  Zeus belonged ot monoagamous society in which male was dominant o Moral the basic outlook, standards for man were different from those forh teomwne o Illicit affiars possible, even if not officially sancted  Zeus glorified as husband, father nad love  Zeus = amoral or immoral, but supreme god can stand above conventional standars, sometimes act in harmony, sometimes he must face harangues of his wife, pay at least in indirectly through pain and suffering  Yet Zues; his worship at Dodona nad Olympia, becomes one god, onccenrs envoleop whole spere of morality  Attributed = thunder and lightening,  Kidn of go d and men, represented as mature man in his prime  He bears the aegis; word meaning goat skin, ; provide shielf and wondering miraculous protective power  Eagle nad oak = sacred to Zeus  Patriarchy of Zeus; means always absolute and supreme o Some his authority not supreme but subjected ot e the fate, femine fates, and powerful goddess Aphrodite; she ebnd all to her will o Except there, Athena, artemis and Hestia; vergins  Demete; greatest matriarchy of antiquity, dominant and universal Elusinian mysteries o Revolution against Zeus power in Illiad o When Hera, Posidon and Athen bound Zeus in chains, it was Thetis, mother of Anchilles who rescued the supreme God  Most detemriend critic challenged his authority was Hera Zeus and Hera  Union sacred marriage between Sky God nad Earth; Hierog gamos; o Under them divince earth, sprothed forth new grass, clovers, corcues, hyacinths,  Homeric Hym t oHera; makes her power clear; has littly mtholgoy of her own, but important because of being queen and consort great in power  Vehement wife, who punish and avenge the sexul escapade of her husband; o Firce champion of morality nad marragie; o Iris the fleet footed and winged goddess of the ranbow messenger of the gods, is sometimes show as Hera’s servant o When Iris serves in cap, Hermeseprofms role as smessenger of Zeus alone o Hera ▪ Attirbutes of royalty, crown, scpeter ▪ Ox eyed, doe eyed, complimatary nature  Peacock, explained by her role in the sotry of IO  Argo special center for her work, great temp for her  Hera worshiped less as aearth goddess than goddess of women, marriage, child birth, function she hsared with other goddess Santuary of Zeus and Olympia  Olympia is sanctuary beside the river Alpheus, in territory of Pelophensian city of Elis  Re orgnzaitiosn of Olympic Games in 776; Zuesp rinciple god of sntauray, nad Harcles was said to found the original Olympic games o One of the principal altheletic festivates in world o Cult of th her Pelops and wife Hippodamia, contined to worship of Zeus nad Hera, whose temples were principal building of sntaury at the peak of its greatness  Hera’s temple oflder than Zues, which was built in 5 century with monumental statue of Zeus inside  Zues;s o Staateu and sculptures on the temple itself together formed a program in which religion mythology nad local rpide = on scale paralledl only by sculptures of the Parthenion of Athens  West pediment o Battle fo Greeks, and the Centaur at the wedding of son of Zeus, Lapith king Piritous ▪ Myth appears in the metopes of Parthenon o Apollo imposing order on scene of violence d cahso;  East Pediment o Fateful cahriat race between Pelops and HIppodamia and her father Oenomaus ▪ Zeus gurantee the success of Pelops in the face, and winning of Hippodamia as his welfe o 12 labours of Heracles carved in the mteopes of Dorice Freizes; external, each about 1.6 meters in height, seix above entrance porch at the east end of temple, and six above corresponding false proch on west end ▪ Climax of labours above east porch, cleansing of the stables of Agueas, kign of Elis • Athens is shown helping the hero, in the labors of the Nemean Lion, Cerebus and Hermes is the helper o Most complex union of myth and religion; Zeus by Athenian sculptor Pheidias, most admired ancient statue ▪ 42 Feet in Height, surface of precious materias, gold for clothing nad orynaments nad i vory for flesh ▪ Nothing remains of the statue today, we can reconstruct its appears ▪ Zeus on throne, carriny figure of Nikie victory in his right hand and left, scepter on which perced his eagle ▪ On feet were myths of the Theban SPhix and the killing of the children of Niobe by Art and Apollo ▪ Part of the structure of throne rep of Heracles fighting amazons, ▪ Heracles again on the painting, two of labors • Apples of Hesperides and the Nemean Lion and freeing of Prometheus ▪ Olympain gods accompanied the mieraculous birth of Aphrdite from the sea, infront statue was reflect a pool of olive oil o Temple and statues at the heart og greated Pallenic sanctuarys ▪ Divince struggle, victory of destruction and creation honour Zeus as supreme god of civilziations Centaurs and Lapiths  Ixion; since punished by being bound ot wheel on Hades, impegnanted the Cloud; Greek work Nephele, a deception placed by Zues in the likeness of his wife o Cclpoud Nephele, gave birth to monster centaurus which mated wit hteh mares that gazed Mt. Pelion o Became father of Centaurus, creation with human head and toros nad legs and body of horse o Famous Centuaur; Chiron; differs form others was wise and gentle skilled in medicine and music o Taught Achilles, Jason and Asclepius, pIndar Calls him the son of Gronus and the nymph Philyra  Using Centuars = violent, best know legend is their fight with Thessalion TIRBE OF LAPITHS o Lapith Chieftain Pirituous was son of Ixion, and centuars were invited ot his wedding o Got drunk and attempted to carry of the Bridde, Hippodamia and other Lpaith women o Violence scene; show in wedp pediment of Temple of Zeus and in the metopes of Parthenon at Athens ▪ Battled in 12 Book of Ovid Methaphorsis  Laptih; Caeneaus; born girl , seduced by Posion, then granted er anything she wanted o She asked ot be turned into man and to beocm invulnerable o Carerneus set up his spear and ordered people to worship o This impiety led Zeus to bring about his death ▪ Battle od Wedding of Priithous and Hippodamia, hhe was attacked by Centaur who buried hum under the enormous pile of Tree trunks they hurled at him • Body dragged to underworld by weight or yellow winged birth emerged from pile, which the see Mopsus announced to be Caenus transformed Oracles at Olympia and Dodona  Dodona in Norther Greece nad Olympia was imp senter of worship fo Zeus, also oracular response  Traditional method of elicit response fomr the god was observation adi nterpetaion of omens o Rustling of leaves, sound of wind, branches of sacred oaks, call of dove, and condition of burnt offering  At Olympia, inquired confidec to the chances of the competitors in the came  Dodona through influence of Oracle of Appolllo at Delphi o Priestest mount on tripod and delivery her communication from God ▪ People or Corcyra asked Zeus to what god they should pray or sarcirif for htier common good, others ask if safe to join federation  Herodotus; visted Dodona o Told by three priestest why oracle of Zeu was founded o Confirmed true by other servants o Pirestes names were Promenia; eldest o , Timarete next, and NIcandra youngs o Two black doves flew from Thebes in Egypt one came to Libyan ad the other to Dodona, ▪ Lattee settled on oak tree nad spoke in human , sayting there msut be an Oracle Zues established there • People of Doona understood message as divince ▪ Dove that went oLibya, order Libyan to establish oracle to Egyptian god Ammon and also scared to Zeus Oracles and Prophets  Oracles of Zeus at Olympia, and Dodona and Delpha Apollo not only sources of prophecy  Trophonius, in Boetia iat Lebadeia; chthonic hero;( name means he who fosters growth o Legend semiliar to Egyptian Rhampsintus Rameses which Herodotus tells o Tophonius and his brother Agamedes were skilled buidlers sons of Erginus of Orchonmenus o Build for King Augeas of Elis or King HHyrieus; a treasury with movable stone, which they used to steal kings ttreassure o King set a trap for unknown theif, and Agamedes was caught, at his own suggestion his head was cut off by Trophinus who then excaped carrinyg the head o Fled to Lebadeiia , swallowed by the earth and worshiped to the gods o Death sim to Amphiarais , one of the seven against themes  Relampus, see with power of understanding speech of animals o Honored a pair of snakes killed by his sevants by burning their bodies, rearing their young, who later licked his lips, and enabled him to understand animals and birds, from them know what was goi
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