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Chapter 4

CLAS 2000 Chapter 4: Mythology Chapter 4

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Classical Studies
CLAS 2000
John Walsh

Mythology Chapter 4: Zeus Rise to Power : the Creation of Mortals  Themis or Earth; o Not thorugh strength or force, but guilely invetiable will those who are more powerful gain mastery Titanomachy: Zeus Defeats his Father Cronus  Cronus thought that Zeus was swalled,  Zeus wages war against his father with his disgorged brothers and sisters as allies; Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades and Poseidon o Allied with Hecatonchires nad the Cyclopes, he had released them from the dpeths of thearth, where their father Uranus had imprisoned them o Hecatonchirs; invaluable; hurling stones iwht their 100 handed dexterity, o Cyclopes: gave his mighty thunder and lightening  With Cronus = the Titanis: with excpetion of Themis and her son Prometheus, allied with Zeus:  Hesiod, Clymene is the mother of Promethesus;  Prometheus brother was important leader on the side of Cronus  Battle = Titanomachy; epic o Zeus fighting from Mt Olympus and Cronus from Mt.Othrys o Stuggled lasted ten years o Hesoid: ▪ Boundless eachoed terribly, earth resounded with great ▪ Highly Olympus shaked onslaught of htei moortals; dread din of endeless chase, reached down to the gloomy tartarus ▪ Earth the giver of life, roared everywher aflame, woshed crackled loudly with the fire; land boil, as well streams of Ocrean and barren sea; ▪ Blast engulfed the earth born titans, endless blaed reached the divine aether; • Unspeakable heat possessed Chaos ▪ Eart and wide heaven above collided; ▪ Hecatonchires insatitate of the battle, foremost to rouse the bitter strifle, they hurled three hundred rocks, covered the itans with a cloud of missiles, send them down Tartarus; harsh bonds ▪ Hecatonchires guarded the Titans imprisoned in Tartarus, ▪ Atlas was punished wit hthe task of hold up the sky, ; some said when Zeus became secure, relented gave Titans their power Gigantomachy; Zeus Defeats the Giants and Tyhphoeus  Giants earth produced to challenge the new order of Gods, born from blood of mutiliation of Urbanus on the ground: o Monstrous creatues = gegeneis: Earth Born o Ended with imprionsmento g Giants under the earth usually in volcanic regions where they betray their precence by violence of htier nature o Mt. Aetna  Vicious of mosnters who opposed Zeus was Dragon: Typhoeus: o Do it alone in Hesiod’s account  Gaea brough forth the youngest of her children thorugh the love of Tartarus and gagencyyy of Aphrodite  Shoulders of dragon; 100 headsgrew; dark tongue, fire blaze from eyes,  Pitless roars of a courageous lion,  Zeus: rule of mortals nad immortals; father of gods and men; o Wide heaven above, streams of Ocean and depths of Tartarus  Hades who rules over the death below shook, titans in the bottom of Tartarus;  Zeus lifted up the weapons of his might;  Zenus in the rage of his anger, hurled him into broad Tartarus  Typhoneus; arise the winds that blow mighty rains but not Notus, Boreas and Zephyr who brings good weather; o Destroy ships and sailors; no defence for people at sea  Heracles was an ally of Zeus in the patty; only defeat if Gods had a mortal as their ally; o Earth produced a magic plant; make giant’s invincible; but Zeus plucked them out  Giants; Otus and Ephialters to storm heaven by pilling mountains ON TOP OF ANOTHER ;T ATTACK THE HEAVEN  2000 BC the greek speaker invade brought with their own gods; Gigantomachies and Civic Pride:  Battle between gods and giants; trump of Greek cvilizations over barbarian disorder;  Artistic symbolism; Great Altar of Pergamum; erected During the reign of Eumenes; gloricaly victory over Gallic invades o Here the alterar was indepdent of the temple, o While the chief gods of Pergamum, Zeus and Athena had thiero wn sep sanctuaroies; o Outside of the portico was a collosal marble fize of gigantocmatch; 100 m b 2.5 m high; bright colours o Small frieze of the myth of Telephus: honoured his father Heracles, whoses help was crucial in the victory of the gods over the giants  Greek alterars; erected in the open air infront of the god’s temple  Altar and its sculpter were exacavated by German; who were allowed to take their finds to Berlin and restore them Creation of Mortals:  Creation of Zeus, pre- Zeus, and other gods; sometimes immortals and mortals spring fomr the same sources  Prometheus as the creator of man, and sometimes women is creatored later and separately throught the design of Zeus  OVID; o Birth of mortals; de[icting the superiority and lofty ambition of this highest creature in the order of things o Godlike animal; high intelligence able to dominate the reest; o Retained seeds from the sky and mixed wit hrain watter from Prometheus; son of Lapetus, fashioned by him into the likeness of the gods who control all o Man was visage; to look up the sky,  Hesiod: o Athena breathened life into clay o Panopea in Boeotia; stones were identified in historical times as solidified remains of the clay used by Prometheus Four or Five Ages  Gold, silver, brozes and iron  Hesiod: Five Ages of man: how gods and mortal humans came into being form the same origin  Age of Gold o Immortals home on Olympus;made a goldence race of mortal humnas; existed with Cronus; o Lived as gods with carefree hearts completey without toil or truble o All good things were theirs, harmony and in peace managed their affiars o Earth covered over this race, they inhabit the eart and are called holy spiritis; who are good and ward off evil; protectors of mortal, providiers of wealth, since they watch over jdugement nad cruel deeds; o Royal prerogatives  Age of silver o Worse than gold; unlike it both physically and mentally o Child lived for hundred of years in the house as mere baby; but when they grew up reached measure of the prime, they lived only for a short time and in distress because of their senselessness o Could not restrain wanton arrogance, did not wish to worship the blessed immortals or sacrice at their holy altar o Zeus; hid them away; as they didn’t give their due ot the gods; earth covered this race ▪ Dwell under the eart, are called cblessed by mortals, and honor attends them also  Bronze; o Not at all like one of silve; terrible and might because of their spears of ash, o They pursued the painful and violent deeds ofares; o Didn’t eat bread; o Mighty; strong; worked with bronze; o Black death seized them,  Age of heroism;\ o Zeus; made demigods; preed our own race on vast earth; o Valiant in war; inhabited Islands of the Blessed with Carefree hearts by the deep swirling stream of Oean; o Cronus rules as king over them, for the father of gods, men released him from his bonds;  Iron: o Never ceased from toil, nor from being destroyed in the night o Gods with give them difficult troubles, but good will be mingled with their evil o Zeus will destroy this race, whenever it comes to pass that they are born with gray hair on their temples o Grow old; dishonor parents, they will find fault, blame them, not knowing respect for the gods, since their right is might o One will destroy the city of another, no esteem will exist for one who is true to an oath or good, justice o Justice will be might nad shame will not exist o Evil person will harm the better, o Envy; will dely, aidos and nemesis both will forsake; o No defence against evil  Hesiod’s age was of Iron;  Invaders brought the age Bronzes to a close;  Fascinating for some of the Gold sage  Wrong to imply that this theory pof denegeration was was only one current among greek and romans o Prometeus; testimony ; listed his gifts to humans, rests on belief in progressive stages from savagery to civlizations Promethus against Zeus:  Theogony: Hesiod;  Prometheu’s conflict with Zeus; how zeus uses human race as the pawn in this gigantic clash with the divine  Iapetus; Clymene an aOceanid; o Gave birth to clever, Prometehus ,Menoetius, Atlas and Epimethus who was fault in judgement and beginning was an evil for mortals who work for their bread o Epimetheus; first to accept from Zeus the virgin women he had formed o Zeus killed Menoetius with bolt down into Erebus; because of pride o Atlas stands and holds the wide heavens with his head; force necessity at the edge of the earth o Zeus bound devios Prometheus with inescapable bonds; long winged eagle against him that used to eat his immortal liver o Heracles; the son of Alcmena; killed the perd, freering Prometehus; ▪ Not against will ofZeus;  When the gods and mortal quarrled at Mecone; Prometheus divied a great ox and set the pieces to deceive the mind of Zeus; o He put flesh and rich fatty on the hide and wrapped htem in ox pauch, o White bones of ox and wrappthem in white fat  Told Zeus to pick one o One with fat and bone, and this is why humans burn the white bones for immortal on the sacrificial alttra  Got pissed, Son Iapetus; o Wisdom is immortal spoke in anger, sthat he will always remebr the deceit o And did nto give the power fo weariless fire out of ashes trees to mortals  Noble son of Iapetus tricked him by stealing in a hollow fennel stalk, weariless fire that is seen form afar  Zues = pissed Creation fo Pandora; Zues psissed at Promtehetis for Theft of Fire  Zue got something evil made; to recompense for the fire; o God Hep fashion out of the earth likeliness of modest maidon to the will of Zeus, Athen clothed and arrayed her in sivler garments, and put a veil on her head o PALLA THENA, PUT HER HEAD, LVOELY GARLAND BUDDING FLOWERS NAD SHE PLACED HER HEAD A GOLDEN CROWN o Beautiful evil in blessing blessing of fire, o From her is the raceo f female sex, ruinous tribes of women, great affliction who live with mortal men, help mates o Zues made women, conspirators in the painful works for mortal men  Contrived second evil, for blessing of fire o Whoever flees marriage; and begets micheive children lives with cintouos sorrow in heart, and soul the evil iscurable  Promethesus in Work and Dyas; o Evil is now named pandora, whch means all gifts, and she has jar o Zeus pissed cause Promoetheus stole the fire form heaven in fennel and brought to earth o He told hepahestus mix earth and with water, and implant in it human voice, and fashion the beautiful and desibarle form of a maiden; face of immortal goddess o Atheen he told ; teacher skill of weaving o Aphrodite ; sheg grade about head, paining longing and sorrows that permeate the body o Hermes; to put in her mind of a bitch and character of thief o Athen arrayed her, and Grace and Mistress Persausion adorned her with golden necklaces o Season corwnered her with spring folowers, and Athena filled body with Adornement and Hermes; put thievish nature in her o = called her Pandaora, because of all who have homes on Olympus gave her a gift, ab ane to men who work for their hread o Gave Pandor to bring it Epmietheus, ▪ Who ignored what Prometheis said about receiving gifts from Zeus, ▪ Before humans use to live free from evils and hard work, and painful disease, which hand over motals to the fates ▪ Women removed the great cover the jar with her hand and scattered he te evils; mortal devised sorrful troubled ▪ Hope rmeaind within there in their unrbeackable home under edge of jar and did not fyl out the door ▪ Disease, sorrow, evil, raom, bringin evils to mortal in silence, thus it is not possible to escape the will of Zeus Interpretation of Myth of Prometheis and Padnaoras  Poemthean fire; symbol of defiant progress  Ritual of sacrifice and origins of fire  Prometheus ; archety of the culture god, hero responsible for art and size  Archetype of the dinvince heroic tirkcester  Pandora = existence f pain and evil in world  Elemts of creation women attitude of early society o Prejudice against women, o See woman and her jars as symbol of the dirve n ad lure of precation and wom birth, life nad source f all our woes  Women as the first bginer of evil; Pandora was the first women like Eve responsible for Evil  Theres many contradictions in Hesods account  Age of Mankind both men and women create by zues  What is hope doing in the Jar, does it let us survive  Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound; interpretation and elaboration; human beings were without hope o Hope = blind and blessing  Prometheus and Ocean o He stopped mortal from forseeing their fate, and because he planted blind hope o Zues = oppressor of human dna Prometheus as benefactors o Prometheus as champion against oppression, symbol of art, literature nad music of all time  Pandador jar; ptho; large earthen ware container for provisions;  Aeschylus: Promteus Bound  Begins with Strenght Kratos, and Force Bias; service of Zues; brought Promtheus to uninhabitied land of Scythia; and Hepaesthus accompanies them  Hephasetus on Zeus orders, bind Prometheus in bond of steel, and stake htorugh his chest o It was Hephaestus own brilliant flower of fire, devise of all arts, that promtheus stole and for this error; he must pay to all god, learn soveierhgnty of Zues, and abandon love for mortals  Pits Zeus young aginst Prometheus  Hepahetus in constrast to savage Strenght and Force I ssnestive, he curse his fragt, hates the job he has to do  Young zUes is harsh, when he first comes to power, seized control over god and humans o Contrast is intended foresha
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