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John Walsh (55)
Chapter 20

CLAS 2000 Chapter 20: Chapter 20

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Classical Studies
CLAS 2000
John Walsh

Thursday, April 20, 2017 Chapter 20: The Returns And The Odyssey Legends Of The Returns returns of Greek leaders from Troy were narrated in epic called Nostoi (returns), omits return of Odysseus, which is subject in Homer’s Odyssey Agamemnon, Menelaüs, and Nestor • Agamemnon sailed for Greece with part of fleet, including contingent of Locrians • Athena, in anger for what happened by Locrian leader, Ajax, caused storm to wreck many ships, but Ajax swam to nearby rock and boasted that not even gods could prevent escape from dangers of sea, and then Poseidon struck his rock with his trident, and he drowned in sea • during second storm, Nauplius avenged death of son, palamedes, by luring ships onto rocks with false beacon, and when Agamemnon finally reached Mycenae, murdered by Aegisthus and Clytemnestra • Menelaüs, Nestor, and Diomedes sailed together from Troy - Nestor returned to Pylos safely - Menelaüs eventually reached Egypt, and with advice of sea-nymph Eidothea, he forced her father, Proteus, tot ell him how to appease gods and secure safe voyage home - after seven years, he and Helen return to Sparta, and resume their rule - Helen escapes being killed by Orestes and Electra and become goddess to join her brothers as protectors of seafarers - Menelaüs transported to Elysian fields, avoiding usual fate to Hades as he was husband of Helen, and son-in-law of Zeus Diomedes • reached Argos quickly and found out wife, Aegialia, had been unfaithful, caused by Aphrodite because he wounded her at Troy • left and went to Italy, where Apulia king gave him land, but declined to help king Latinus against Aeneas 1 Thursday, April 20, 2017 after death, worshipped as hero in Italy, and some stories state Athena made him • immortal god and followers turned to birds Idomeneus • returned to Crete to find his wife, Media, had committed adultery with Leucus, who murdered her and her daughter and made himself king over ten cities of Crete • driven out by Leucus and came to Calabria, where worshipped as hero after death Philoctetes returned to Thessaly but driven out by his people, so went to Italy and founded • number of cities, and after his death, was worshipped there Neoptolemus • warned by Thetis to not return by sea, so took route to Greece, accompanied by Helenus and Andromache, and his wife Hermione, left home in Phthia and came to Molossia in Epirus, where he ruled over Colossi • killed at Delphi and became hero with his own cult The Return Of Odysseus most adventures of Odysseus are romantic legends and folktales set in imaginary places, talking about the prince’s return from a long absence Odysseus was wisest of Greek heroes and and a brave warrior, and after Achilles died, he got his divine armor • stories about him getting out of danger with his intelligence and courage, and always remains faithful to his wife, Penelope, whom he left in Ithaca and his son, Telemachus story of the Odyssey • starts off with Odysseus absence and suitors going up to Penelope for her hand in marriage and with it her kingdom, while Odysseus is detained on Ogygia, island of divine nymph Calypso, due to his raft being wrecked • eventually arrives back on Ithaca, gets revenge on suitors for hand of Penelope, and recognition by and reunion with Penelope • Poseidon is hostile to him, while Athena protects him 2 Thursday, April 20, 2017 the Cicones and the Lotus eaters • took Odysseus ten years to reach home • when him and his contingent left Troy, came to Thracian city of Ismarus, home of Cicones, and they sacked it before driving off, but spared Maron, priest of Apollo, and in return he gave them twelve jars of fragrant red wine • driven by storm to land of lotus eaters, and whoever ate lotus fruit wanted to stay there and do nothing else but continue to eat the fruit • got men away, even those who had fruit, and sailed to land of Cyclopes the Cyclopes • one-eyed giants, herdsmen, living each in their own cage, and one named Polyphemus, son of Poseidon, whose cave they entered, and he began to eat them • Odysseus used the wine to get him drunk and told him his name was Nobody (Outis), and in return for wine promised to eat him last • stabbed heated, wooden stake in Polyphemus’ eye and he screamed “Nobody is killing me” so the other giants didn't come, and he became blind • the next day, Odysseus tied his remaining men to sheets so they could escape Aeolus and the Laestrygonians • Odysseus reached island of Aeolus, keeper of winds, who lived there with his six sons who were married to his six daughters • gave him leather bag with all winds, including one to help him get home • his men opened the bag thinking it was gold, and wind came out and could not get home • sailed to land of Laestrygonians, who sank all his ships except his own, and ate his crew, so he sailed away (Polyphemus’ curse already working) Circe • reached island of Aenea next, home to the witch, Circe, daughter of the sun • split men into two and first half went to see ruler, and turned into pigs with human minds after eating her food, except for Eurylochus who ran to tell the news 3 Thursday, April 20, 2017 • went to rescue men, and Hermes gave him magic herb antidote “moly”, which has a black root and white flower, and when he ate food he didn't turn to pig and when she threatened him he took out his sword she ended up making love to him, made him a feast, and turned his men back • lived with her for a year and had a son, Telegonus, until he asked to go home and • she said he had to ask prophet Tiresias from underworld how to get home The Nekuia • Nekuia, rite where ghosts were summoned and questioned • his visit to underworld is conquest of death, and if can return he has achieved all a mortal can • in Aeneid story, Aeneas descends to underworld and passes thro
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