Chapter 3 Hannah Green
Using the Internet: Making the Most of the Web’s Resources
The largest computer network in the world. It is a network of
networks that connects billions of computer users globally.
The concept of the Internet was developed while the US was in the
midst of the Cold Ware with the Soviet Union.
o It was created to respond to these two concerns: establishing
a secure form of military communications and creating a
means by which all computers could communicate
The modern Internet evolved from an early US government-funded
“internetworking” project called the Advanced Research Projects
Agency Network (ARPANET). It began as a four-node networking
involving UCLA, Stanford, U of C and University of Utah
o First real communication occurred in late 1969 between the
computer at Stanford and the computer at UCLA
The World Wide Web (WWW or Web) is what we use to most but is
only one component of the Internet. It is the means to access
information over the Internet (hence beginning addresses with
o What distinguishes the Web from the rest of the Internet is
the use of:
Common communication protocols that tenable different
computers to talk to each other and display information
in compatible formats
Special links that enable users to navigate from one
place to another on the web
o Tim Berners-Lee, a physicist at the European Organization for
Nuclear Research, in 1989 wanted a method for linking his
research documents so that other researchers could access
them. In conjunction with Robert Cailliau, they developed the
basic architecture of the Web and created the first Web
browser (or browser), software that enables a user to display
and interact with text and other media on the Web.
Email A written message that is sent and received over the Ineternet. The
messages can be formatted and enhanced with graphics and can
also include attachments.
Became primary method of electronic communication worldwide
because it’s fast and convenient.
Reduced costs of postage and long-distance phone calls.
Currently, it is the main means of communication in the business
Email clients such as Microsoft Outlook are software programs
running on your computer that access your Internet service
provider (ISP), which acts as a electronic post office.
Service programs that enable you to communicate in real time with
others who are online. It is often used for casual conversations
between friends, many businesses use IM as a means of quickly
and instant communication between co-workers.
o A chat room – a form of synchronous communication I nwhich
online conversations occur in real time and are visable to
everyone in the chat room.
o A newsgroup - a discussion group or forum in which people
create threads (conversations).
o Internet Relay Chat (IRC) – a means of synchronous group
communication used in discussion forums.
Conducting Business over the Internet: E-Commerce
E-commerce, or electronic commerce is the process of conducting
business online, such as through advertising or selling products.
Business-to-consumer (B2C) – a significant portion of e-commerce
consists of this type. They are exchanges that take place between
businesses and consumers, such as the purchases that consumers
make at online stores. Business-to-business (B2B) – consists of businesses buying and
selling goods and services to other business. (Omahapaper.com)
which distributes paper products to other companies
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) – consists of consumers selling to
each other through online auction and exchange sits (eBay &
Approx. $100 billion each year is spent on goods purchased over
the internet accounting for approximately 25% of all retail sales
Accessing the Web: Web Browsers
Web browser or a browser is software installed on your computer
system that allows you to locate, view, and navigate the Web.
o Most browsers in used today are graphical browsers, meaning
they can display pictures (graphics) in addiction to text and
other forms of multimedia such as sound and video