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Computing and Information Science
CIS 1000
Jing Yu Zhu

Chapter 3 Hannah Green Using the Internet: Making the Most of the Web’s Resources The Internet  The largest computer network in the world. It is a network of networks that connects billions of computer users globally.  The concept of the Internet was developed while the US was in the midst of the Cold Ware with the Soviet Union. o It was created to respond to these two concerns: establishing a secure form of military communications and creating a means by which all computers could communicate  The modern Internet evolved from an early US government-funded “internetworking” project called the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). It began as a four-node networking involving UCLA, Stanford, U of C and University of Utah o First real communication occurred in late 1969 between the computer at Stanford and the computer at UCLA  The World Wide Web (WWW or Web) is what we use to most but is only one component of the Internet. It is the means to access information over the Internet (hence beginning addresses with www) o What distinguishes the Web from the rest of the Internet is the use of:  Common communication protocols that tenable different computers to talk to each other and display information in compatible formats  Special links that enable users to navigate from one place to another on the web o Tim Berners-Lee, a physicist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in 1989 wanted a method for linking his research documents so that other researchers could access them. In conjunction with Robert Cailliau, they developed the basic architecture of the Web and created the first Web browser (or browser), software that enables a user to display and interact with text and other media on the Web. Email  A written message that is sent and received over the Ineternet. The messages can be formatted and enhanced with graphics and can also include attachments.  Became primary method of electronic communication worldwide because it’s fast and convenient.  Reduced costs of postage and long-distance phone calls.  Currently, it is the main means of communication in the business community.  Email clients such as Microsoft Outlook are software programs running on your computer that access your Internet service provider (ISP), which acts as a electronic post office. Instant Messaging  Service programs that enable you to communicate in real time with others who are online. It is often used for casual conversations between friends, many businesses use IM as a means of quickly and instant communication between co-workers.  Group Communication: o A chat room – a form of synchronous communication I nwhich online conversations occur in real time and are visable to everyone in the chat room. o A newsgroup - a discussion group or forum in which people create threads (conversations). o Internet Relay Chat (IRC) – a means of synchronous group communication used in discussion forums. Conducting Business over the Internet: E-Commerce  E-commerce, or electronic commerce is the process of conducting business online, such as through advertising or selling products. (  Business-to-consumer (B2C) – a significant portion of e-commerce consists of this type. They are exchanges that take place between businesses and consumers, such as the purchases that consumers make at online stores.  Business-to-business (B2B) – consists of businesses buying and selling goods and services to other business. ( which distributes paper products to other companies  Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) – consists of consumers selling to each other through online auction and exchange sits (eBay & Craigslist)  Approx. $100 billion each year is spent on goods purchased over the internet accounting for approximately 25% of all retail sales Accessing the Web: Web Browsers  Web browser or a browser is software installed on your computer system that allows you to locate, view, and navigate the Web. o Most browsers in used today are graphical browsers, meaning they can display pictures (graphics) in addiction to text and other forms of multimedia such as sound and video
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