Textbook Notes (368,611)
Canada (162,009)
CIS 1000 (58)
Zoe Zhu (26)
Chapter 2

chapter 2

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Computing and Information Science
CIS 1000
Zoe Zhu

Chapter 2 Looking at ComputersUnderstanding the Parts Computers Are Data Processing Deviceso A computers four major functionso Gathers data users input datao Processes data into informationo Outputs data or informationo Stores data and informationStrictly defined a computer is a data processing device that performs four major functions1 It gathers data or allows users to input data2 It processes that data into information manipulates calculates and organizes data 3 It outputs data or information4 It stores data and informationData vs Information o Data Representation of a fact figure or idea o Information Organized meaningful dataData is a representation of a fact figure or idea Data can be a number a word a picture or even a recording of sound For example the number 7135553297 and the names Zoe and Richardson are pieces of data Information is data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion When your computer provides you with a contact listing that indicates Zoe Richardson can be reached by phone at 713 5553297 the data mentioned earlier suddenly becomes usefulthat is it becomes informationBits and Bytes The Language of Computers o Bit o Binary digit o 0 or 1 o Byteo 8 bits o Each letter number and character is a string of eight 0s and 1sTo process data into information computers need to work in a language they understand This language called binary language consists of just two digits 0 and 1 This works like a light switch where it is either on or off Everything a computer does is broken down into a series of 0s and 1s Each 0 and 1 is a binary digit or bit for short Eight binary digits or bits combine to create 1 byte In computers each letter of the alphabet each number and each special character such as thesign consists of a unique combination of 8 bits or a string of eight 0s and 1s A capital letter K has a different string of 0s and 1s than a lowercase letter k for instance As it turns out if 8 bits are put together there are 256 possible combinations That number of combinations allows for a code that can include all the uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet all 10 digits punctuation marks and many other much used symbols We call these 8 bits working together a byte Bytes are the basic measurement for storage in a computerHow Much Is a Byte Name Abbreviation Number of Bytes Relative Size Can hold one Byte B 1 Byte character of data Can hold 1024 Kilobyte KB 1024 bytescharacters or about half of a doublespaced typewritten page Can hold Megabyte MB 1048576 bytes approximately 768 pages of types text Approximately Gigabyte GB 1073741824 bytes 786432 pages of text 500 sheets of paper is approximately 2 inches so this represents a stack of paper 262 feet high This represents a Terabyte TB 1099511627776 bytes stack of pages almost 51 miles high The stck of pages Petabyte PB 112589990684262 bytes is now 52000 miles high or approximately onefourth the distance from the Earth to the moon The stack of Exabyte EB 1152921504606846976 pages is now 52 bytes million miles high or just about twice the distance between Earth and Venus The stack of Zettabyte ZB 1180591620717411303424 pages is now 52 bytes billion miles high some 20 times the distance between the Earth and Pluto
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