Textbook Notes (368,150)
Canada (161,680)
CIS 1200 (114)
John Saville (104)
Chapter 3

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Computing and Information Science
CIS 1200
John Saville

Using the Internet: Making the most of Web’s resources The Origin of Internet • The concept of Internet was developed while the US was in the midst of Cold War with the Soviet Union. o US armed forces needed a computer system that would operate efficiently and that was located in various parts of the country so that it could not be disrupted easily in the event of an attack. o Computers had been networked since the early 1900’s, there was no reliable way to connect computers from different manufacturers because they used different proprietary designs and methods of communication o The Internet was created to respond to establishing a secure form of military communications and creating a means by which all computers could communicate • The modern internet evolved from an early US government funded “internetworking” project called the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPTANET) • ARPANET à began as 4-node network involving UCLA, Stanford research institute, the University of California and the University of Utah • The first real communication occurred in late 1969 between rde computer at Stanford and the computer at UCLA (system crashed after 3 letter was transmitted • Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn are the fathers of Internet So are the Web and the Internet the same thing? • The web is a subset of the Internet, dedicated to broadcasting HTML, pages and the means by which we access information over the internet • The web is based on the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), hence the http:// at the beginning of Web addresses • Other components of the web include FTP and Bit-Torrent • Common communications of protocols the enable different computers to talk to each other and display information in compatible formats is what distinguishes the web from the Internet • Also, special links that enable users to navigate from one place to another on web is what differs the web from the Internet Did the same people who created the Internet create the Web? • Web was created many years after the original Internet • In conjunction with Robert Cailliau, Barners-Lee developed the basic architecture of the web and created the first Web browser • The original browser could handle only text and was usable only on computers running the NeXT operating system, a commercially unsuccessful operating system, which limited its usage • 1993: the National Center for Supercomputing Applications released its Mosaic browser for use on the Macintosh and Windows operating systems The Internet and How it Works: • computers connected to the Internet communicate with (or “talk” to) each other in turns, just as we do when we ask a question and get an answer • Client: a computer that asks for data • Server: a computer that receives the request and returns the data to the client o Because the Internet uses clients and servers, it is referred to as a client/server network How do Computers Talk to Each Other? 1. When an address (such as amazon) is typed into the web address, the computer acts as a client computer because you are asking for data from Amazon’s website 2. Your browser’s request for this data travels along several pathways that can be likened to interstate highways o Internet Backbonesà the largest and fastest pathways of the Internet 3. Data flows along the backbone and then on to smaller pathways until it reaches its destination (i.e. Amazon) 4. The server computer returns the requested data to your computer using the most expedient pathway system 5. Your web browser interprets the data and displays it on your monitor How does the data get sent to the correct computer? • The computer is assigned a unique identification number each time you connect to the Internet o Internet Protocol address (IP) : Your computer’s unique ID consisting of a set of 4 numbers separated by periods and commonly referred to as a dotted quad or dotted decimal o Example: o Similarly, each website is assigned an IP address that uniquely
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