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CIS 1200 (91)
Chapter 1-5

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University of Guelph
Computing and Information Science
CIS 1200
John Saville

CHAPTER 1- WHY COMPUTERS MATTER TO YOU: BECOMING COMPUTER LITERATE Why Should You Become Computer Literate? - just by being a member of society you already know quite a bit about computers Computer Literate: being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and limitations and know how to use them - Benefits o You can use your computer more wisely and be a more knowledgeable consumer o Computer literate employees are sought after in almost every vocation o Becoming computer literate will help you better understand and take advantage of future technologies o Understanding computers and their ethical, legal, and societal implications will make you a more active and aware participant in society Becoming A Savvy Computer User and Consumer - Avoiding hackers and viruses: both can threaten a computer’s security, knowing how hackers operate can help you avoid falling prey to them - Protecting your privacy: knowing how to protect yourself from things such as identity theft - Understanding the real risks: being able to separate the real privacy and security risks from things you don’t have to worry about - Using the internet and the Web wisely: finding information and finding good information are two different things- being computer literate make the internet a powerful tool, and find the information they need effectively - Avoiding online annoyances: knowing how to avoid being overwhelmed by spam or junk mail. There are some software programs you should install to avoid these annoyances - Being able to maintain, upgrade, and troubleshoot your computer: understanding computer terminology and keeping current with technology will help you better determine which computers and devices match your needs Being Prepared for Your Career Information Technology (IT): field of study focused on managing and processing information and the automatic retrieval of information. Includes computers, telecommunications, and software deployment. Computers in Today’s Careers Retail: Working in a Data Mine Data Mining: the process of searching huge amounts of data with the hope of finding a pattern Ex. Large retailers often study the data gathered from register terminals to determine which products are selling on a given day and in a specific location - Managers use mined data to determine that if a certain product is to sell well, they must lower its price-especially if they cut the price at one store and see sales increase. - Allows retailers to respond to consumer buying patterns Business Data on the Go - For UPS, package tracking begins the sender drops off a package and the company creates a “smart label” for the package - These devices use Bluetooth technology – a type of wireless communication to transmit the scanned data through radio waves to a terminal. This terminal then sends the data across a wireless network where it is recorded in the UPS data base - GPS positioning, infrared scanners and an electronic pad to capture customer signatures- this allows UPS customers to track their packages Arts: Ink, Paints, and a Notebook? - Some art students believe that because they’re studying art there is no reason for them to study computers, however, they need computers to sell their work o Advertising o Website - using computers in the arts and entertainment field goes far beyond using the internet - dance and music programs use computers to create new performances for audiences - not all art is on a canvas, many use computers with software programs such as Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop and Corel Painter Video Game Design: A Long Way from Pac-Man - revenues from video game sales in the U.S. are not larger than the movie industry’s box office - because computer games are best developed for a local market by people native enough to that market, game development will most likely stay in the U.S. instead of being offshored (sent to other countries)as many other types of programming jobs have been Education: Teaching and Learning - as an educator, being computer literate will help you integrate computers constructively into lesson plans for your students and use technology to interact with them Law Enforcement: Put Down That Mouse- You’re Under Arrest! - Computers are being used in police cars and crime labs to solve an increasing number of crimes ex. Facial reconstruction systems can turn a skull into a finished digital image of a face, allowing investigators to proceed far more quickly with identification - Computer Forensics: growing, specifically analyzes computer systems with specific techniques to gather potential legal evidence - Computers are also used in training law enforcement officers to be more effective Digital Home : having an appropriate computer and digital devices that are all connected to a home network Media Computer: a computer is the nerve centre of any digital home, allowing you to interface with al the different digital devices you have connected to the network TV tuner: allows your computer to receive television channels from a cable connection and display them on your computer monitor Blu-ray, DVD, and CD players and recorders: to make it easy to transfer your audio or video files from one device to another, Blu-ray and DVD/CD players and recorders allow you to play all kinds of optical media Network Adapter: device that is installed in your computer and allows it to communicate with other devices on a network A Network: unless you are going to view digital and audio files only on your computer, you will need a network to transfer files easily to other devices(such as television) in your home. An internet-ready digital television: newer plasma and organic light emitting diode (OLED) televisions or high definition tvs are an important part of any digital home because they are the best way to show off all your digital media A universal Remote: single remote control that works with any infrared- controlled device and allows you to access media such as MP3 files no matter where in the house it is stored. Military Careers: Drive that Drone - The U.S. military branches have some of the most highly technological projects ever developed - Ex. The Air Force employs unmanned aerial vehicles, called UAVs or drones, to perform surveillance operations and to deliver missiles. - Unmanned drones can be controlled remotely, even at distances of thousands of miles, by modern avionics systems Agriculture: High-Tech Down on the Farm - Ranchers face many challenges in modern meat production, they must look out for and prevent outbreaks of diseases such as hoof and mouth, mad cow, and E. coli. - Fortunately outbreaks can be managed and minimized with the use of radio frequency identification tags (RFID tags). o these are small versions of the roadway electric toll systems used in many states to collect tolls automatically as drives pass through toll stations Automotive Technology: Sensors and CPUs - automotive technicians are required to have knowledge of a range of tools - people considering to have a career in automotive repair today require a sophisticated level of computer literacy as well - automotive technicians must be able to update documentation through the Internet, use computer data bases to learn about common problems and solutions, and se computer systems to interface with and run diagnostics on all the different automotive computer systems Medicine: Technologies of Today and Tomorrow - in addition to being an integral part if many medical research projects, computers are helping doctors and nurses learn their trades - medical students now have access to better training opportunities thanks to a computer technology called a patient simulator – life sized, computer controlled mannequins that can speak, breathe and blink (their eyes to respond to external stimuli) o they have a pulse and a heartbeat , and they respond just like humans to procedures such as the administration of intravenous drugs o patient simulators allow health care students to practice medical procedures without risk of injury or death to real patients - even more exciting than patient simulators is the work being done on modeling complete human biological systems o it now is a global public domain effort (not covered by copyright) in which bioengineers are creating realistic computer simulators of all simulations of all systems and features of the human anatomy o a doctor manipulates controls that move the robotic instrument tips inside the patient o this shows what surgeons might see as they operate on the patient Medicine: The Chip Within - researchers are experimenting with implantable chips such as this one to repair nerve damage and restore movement or sensation to parts of the body - the MIT eyeball chip is a retinal implant that may restore at least partial vision to certain groups of legally blind patterns - no bigger than the period at the end of this sentence , the Hitachi u chip can hold digital information, which can be read when it passes a detector Science: Simulating Reality - software that combines radar information in new ways increases the accuracy of tornado predictions and allows for earlier warning of threatened towns - a digital re-creation of the ruins of Pompeii allows archaeologists to study the ruins without even being there, as well as re-create Pompeii as it looked before the devastation Nanotechnology: careers yet to come - developments in computing based on the priciples of nanoscience are being touted as the next big wave in computing - the realm of science focuses on small objects, nanoscience- involves the study of molecules and structures (called nanostructures) that range in size from 1 to 100 nanometers - prefix nano stands for one billionth- one billionth of a meter - nanotechnology- the science of using nanostructures to build devices on an extremely small scale o limited to improving existing products, such as enhancing fibers used in clothing with coatings so that they repel stains, resist odors or stop wrinkles Psychology: you should smile… now - Affective Computing – computing that relates to emotion or deliberately tries to influence emotion - Ex. Once project to emerge is the emotionally social prosthesis (ESP) o Developed to help people with autism, wearable system that isolates the movements and facial expressions of people, interprets their moods, and intents and communicates information back to the user - Robots with articulated joints that mimic human limbs can balance, stand, walk and even hug Understanding the Challenges Facing a Digital Society - Although computers offer us a world of opportunities, they also pose ethical, legal, and moral challenges and questions o Should the government be allowed to monitor your activities in public places to help keep the country secure? o Advances in technology are allowing surveillance to become smaller and less noticeable, do you know if someone is watching you? o Many employees don’t know that employers have the right to monitor email and network traffic on the systems they use at work because those systems are provided at the employers expense for the sole purpose of allowing employees to do their jobs. Should employers have the right to know? CIS 1200 – Chapter 2 - - A computer is a data-processing device that performs 4 major functions: - - 1. Input: It gathers data, or allows users to enter data. - 2. Process: It manipulates, calculates, or organizes that data into information. - 3. Output: It displays data and information in a form suitable for the use. - 4. Storage: It saves data and info for later use. - - What’s the difference between data and information: In computer terms, data is a representation of a fact, a figure, or an idea. Data can be a number, a word, a picture, or even a recording of a sound. The name Zoe is a piece of data. Information is data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion. Contact listing’s showing Zoe can be reached by phone at (713) 555-5555 makes previous data suddenly become useful, it then becomes information. - - How do computers interact with data and information: Computers are excellent at processing (manipulating, calculating, or organizing) data into information. To get a student ID card requires you provide personal data (name and address). Then a picture is taken (collecting more data). This information is processed and then the organized output of the data is represented as information on a physical identification card. - - How do computers process data into information? Computers work exclusively with numbers (no words). To process data into information, comps need to work in a language they understand. This language is called binary language, and it consists of two digits: 0 and 1. Each 0 and 1 is a binary digit, or bit for short. Eight bits combine to create one byte. In comps, each letter of the alphabet, each number, and each special character (@) consists of a unique combo of eight bits. - - What else can bits and bytes be used for? Bits and bytes aren’t only used as the language that tells the comp what to do, but also they’re what the comp uses to represent the quantity of data and information that it inputs and outputs. To make it easier to measure the size of data files, we use units of measurement like: Kilobytes (1000 bytes), megabyte (1 million bytes), gigabyte (1 billion bytes), and terabyte ( 1 trillion bytes). Today, most PC’s can store terabytes of data; business comps can store a petabyte (one thousand terabytes). Google processes more than 1 terabyte of generated data per hour. - - How does your computer process bits and bytes? The computer uses a combo of hardware and software to process data into information and enables one to complete tasks like writing or playing games. Hardware is any type of the comp you can physically touch. Software are the computer programs and applications that run on the computer. Application software is the set of programs you use on a comp to help carry out tasks like writing a paper. System software is the set of programs that enables the computer’s hardware devices and application software to work together. The most common system software is the operating system – the program that controls the way in which the computer system functions. It manages the hardware of the computer system (i.e. printer). - Are all computers the same? There are two basic designs of comps: portable and stationary. A notebook comp (laptop) is a portable comp that has a keyboard, monitor, and other devices integrated into a compact shell. Notebooks are powered by a battery or an AC adapter. A netbook is a small version of a notebook (7-10 inches wide) and has a longer battery life than a notebook. A tablet PC is similar to a notebook, but the monitor swivels and folds flat. Users then issue commands with a stylus and input text via a virtual keyboard. A tablet computer is a mobile comp integrated into a flat multitouch-sensitive screen. A desktop computer is intended for use at a single location (stationary) and use peripheral devices – a component, such as a monitor or keyboard that is not directly integrated into the comp. An all-in-one computer (iMac) doesn’t use a separate tower, because these comps house the processor and memory into the monitor unit. - - Other types of computers? There are computers that you will likely never come into contact with: A mainframe is a large, expensive comp that supports hundreds of users simultaneously. Used mainly in offices where many ppl are working on similar operations. Mainframes excel at executing many different comp programs at the same time. A supercomputer is a specially designed comp that can perform complex calculations extremely fast. Supercomputers are used in situations in which complex models requite intense mathematical calculations are needed (weather forecasting). The main difference between a supercomputer and mainframe is that supercomputers are designed to execute a few programs as quickly as possible, where mainframes are designed ot handle many programs running at the same time, but at a slower pace. An embedded computer is a specially designed computer chip that resides in another device, such as your car. Embedded comps are self-contained comp devices that have their own programming an typically don’t receive input from an individual. - - Input Devices: An input device enables you to enter data (text, images, sounds) and instructions (user responses) into the comp. A keyboard is used to enter typed data and commands, and a mouse is used to enter user responses. Other input devices include microphones, scanners, and digital cameras, which input sounds, non-digital text, and digital images, respectively. - - Are all keyboards the same? Most comps come with a QWERTY keyboard, which is the standard English-language keyboard layout. The qwerty layout was originally designed for typewriters and was meant to slow typists down and prevent the keys from jamming. Although the qwerty layout is considered inefficient, efforts to change to more efficient layouts (the Dvorak keyboard); haven’t been met with public interest. This alternative keyboard puts the most commonly used letters on “home keys,” which are the keys in the middle row of the keyboard. You can change to the Dvorak layout without buying a new keyboard by using the Windows OS and changing the keyboard layout. This layout can be beneficial for ppl who suffer carpal tunnel syndrome due to it being a lesser strain on the hands. - Notebook keyboards: Smaller notebook keyboards (14” under) are more compact than standard keyboards and have fewer keys. To retain functionality, many of the notebook keys have alternative functions (i.e. no separate number pad and use function key combos with number keys to serve as an ulterior method of performing an action). - Alternative Keyboards: Flexible keyboards are useful if one wishes to have a full-size keyboard for their notebook. It can be rolled up and plugged in via a USB port. Virtual laser keyboards project the image of a keyboard and sensors detect motion of the user’s fingers as they type on a flat surface. Data is transmitted via Bluetooth technology, which is a wireless transmission standard that facilitates the connection of electronic computing devices, i.e. smartphones and comps to peripheral devices such as keyboards and headsets. Gamers love keyboards like the DX1 from Ergodex, which allows for placement of the keys in nay position on the keyboard pad and the keys can be programmed to execute individual keystrokes or macros (a series of tasks) to perform specific tasks. - - Effectively using a keyboard: Function keys act as shortcut keys you press to perform special tasks (referred to as “F” keys, i.e. F1). Each software application has its own set of tasks assigned to various function keys. The F2 key moves test in Word but allows editing of the active cell in Excel. Many keys are universal: the F1 key is the help key in most applications. The Control key (Ctrl) is used in combo with other keys to perform shortcuts and special tasks. Holding down the Ctrl key while pressing B adds bold format to selected text The Insert key is a toggle key because its function changes between one of two options each time it’s pressed. Toggle on: the Insert key inserts new text within a line of existing text. Toggle off: the Insert key replaces existing characters with new characters as you type. Other toggle keys include the Num Lock key and the Caps lock key. The Windows key is specific to the Windows OS. Used alone, it opens the Start menu, although you can use it in combo with other keys to perform shortcuts (Windows key + M = minimizes all windows). - - All conventional keyboards connected via wires? Wireless keyboards provide additional flexibility since there aren’t wires. Wireless keyboards are powered by batteries and these keyboards send data to the comp using a form of wireless technology that uses radio frequency (RF). A radio transmitter in the keyboard sends out radio wave signals that are received through a small receiving device plugged into the USB port or a Bluetooth receiving device that is contained in the system unit. RF keyboards used with home comps can work from 6-30 ft away, while keyboards used in auditoriums can be placed 100 ft away from the comp. - - What kind of Mice are there? The most familiar mouse type is the optical mouse. An optical mouse uses an internal sensor or laser to detect the mouse’s movement. The sensor sends signals to the comp, telling it where to move the pointer on the screen. This type of mouse doesn’t require a mouse pad. Most mice have two or three buttons that enable you to execute commands and open shortcut menus. Many mice have additional programmable buttons that let you quickly maneuver through web pages (Naga Epic). The Cyborg RAT9 is customizable to fit any size hand and grip style. - - Wireless Mice? Wireless mice use batteries and send data to the comp by radio frequency or Bluetooth. A wireless keyboard and mouse usually can share the same RF receiver. Small, compact devices like the MoGo Mouse are designed for portability. It fits into a peripheral slot on the side of a notebook, which stores, protects, and charges it. - Other tasks possible with a mouse? One some new mouse models, Microsoft and Logitech provide features such as: Magnifier: pulls up a magnification box to enhance viewing of hard to read images (useful for ppl with disabilities). Web search: Allows for quick highlighting of a word or phrase and then press the search button on the mouse to start a Web search. File storage: Includes a wireless USB receiver that contains flash memory to store/back up your files. - - Notebook computers include a mouse? Most notebooks have an integrated pointing device such as a touch pad/ track pad. Most touch pads are sensitive to taps, interpreting them as mouse clicks. Many notebooks also have buttons beneath the pads to record mouse clicks. Some notebooks incorporate a trackpoint device, a small, joystick-like nub that allows you to move the cursor with the tip of your finger. - - Input devices used with games? Game controllers, such as joysticks, game pads, and steering wheels are also considered input devices because they send data to the comp. Game controllers similar to the ones used on the Xbox 360 are also available for use with comps. Force-feedback joysticks and steering wheels deliver data in both directions. They translate your movements to the comp and translate its responses into forces on your hands. - - How else can I input data and commands: A touch screen is a display screen that responds to commands initiated by a touch with a finger or stylus. Tablet PC’s were one of the first devices with touch-screen capabilities. Another way to input data is through use of a digital pen. This pen works in conjunction with a flash drive (electronic storage device that connects to a USB port). You can write with the pen on any conventional paper. The pen captures your writing and then wirelessly transmits and stores it in the flash drive. You can then use the flash drive to translate your writing into digital text. - - Input digital images into a computer? Digital cameras and cell phones are common devices for capturing pictures and all are considered input devices. These devices either connect to with a data cable or transmit data wirelessly. The comp automatically recognizes these devices when they’re connected and makes the input of the digital data to the comp simple and easy. Scanners also input images. They work like a photocopy machine, but instead of generating the image on paper, they create a digital image. - - Capture live video from a computer or device? A webcam is a small camera that sits on top of a computer monitor or is built into the device. Webcams are able to capture still images, but are used mostly for capturing and transmitting live video (sometimes in HD). Videoconferencing technology allows a person using a comp with a webcam and mic to transmit video and audio across the Internet. Video call sites like ooVoo make it easy to videoconference with as many as 12 ppl. - - Ethical Computing: The Computer Ethics Institute developed the Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics, which is widely cited as a benchmark for companies that are developing computer usage and compliance policies for employees. These guidelines are applicable for schools and students as well. They are as follows: - 1. Avoid cuasing harm to others when using comps - 2. Don’t interfere with other ppl’s efforts at accomplishing work w/ comps. - 3. Resist the temptation to snoop in other ppl’s comp files. - 4. Don’t use comps to commit theft. - 5. Agree not to use comps to promote lies. - 6. Don’t use software (or make illegal copies for others) w/o paying the creator for it. - 7. Avoid using other ppl’s comp resources without appropriate authorization or proper compensation. - 8. Don’t claim other ppl’s intellectual output as your own. - 9. Consider the social consequences of the products of your comp labour. - 10. Only use comps in ways that show consideration and respect for others. - - The US has enacted laws that support some of these guidelines, such as Guideline 6, the breaking of which would violate copyright laws and Guideline 4, which is enforceable under numerous federal and state larceny laws. Other guidelines, however, require subtler interpretation as to what behaviour is unethical because there are no laws designed opt enforce them. - - Why would I want to input sound to my computer? You can conduct audio conferences with work colleagues, chat with family and friends over the Internet instead of using a phone, record podcasts, and more. Inputting sound to your computer requires using a microphone – a device that allows you to capture sound waves and transfer them to digital format on your comp. Most notebooks come with built-in mics, and some desktop comps come with inexpensive mics. - - What types of mics are available? Unidirectional mics pick up sound from only one direction. They’re best used for recording podcasts with a single voice or making phone calls over the Internet with only one person. Omnidirectional mics pick up sounds from all directions at once. They’re best used for recording more than one voice, such as during a conference call. Bidirectional mics receive sound equally from the front and back of the mic, and are especially good for interviews. Clip-on mics (called lavalier microphones) are useful in environments such as presentations, where you need to keep your hands free. Close-talk microphones, which are usually attached to a headset, facilitate using speech-recognition software, videoconferencing, or making phone calls. With a mic attached to headset, your hands are free to perform other tasks, and the headset allows you to listen as well. - - Input devices available to people with disabilities? For visually impaired users, voice recognition is an obvious option. For those users whose visual limitations are less severe, keyboards with large keys are available. Keyboards that display on a touch screen can make input easier for some individuals. These keyboards are displayed as graphics on the computer monitor. There are also keyboards designed for ppl who can only use one hand, such as the Maltron keyboard. Ppl with motor control issues can use special trackballs that can easily be manipulated with one finger and can be attached to almost any surface, including a wheelchair. - When arm motion is restrained, head-mounted pointing devices can be used. These involve cameras on the monitor and a device attached to the head. When the user moves his head, the camera detects the movement, which control the cursor on the screen. In this case, mouse clicks are controlled by a switch that can be manipulated by the users hands or feet. - - Output Devices: An output device enables one to send processed data out of their comp in the form of text, pics, sounds, or video. One common output device is a monitor or display screen, which displays text, graphics, and video as soft copies (only visible on screen). Another common output device is a printer, which creates hard copies (you can touch) of text and graphics. Speakers would be considered output devices for sound. - - Different types of monitors? The most common type of monitor is a liquid crystal display (LCD). An LCD monitor, also called a flat-panel monitor, is light and energy efficient. Some newer monitors used light-emitting diode (LED) technology, which is more energy efficient, and may have better colour accuracy and thinner panels than LCD. These flat panel monitors have replaced the cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor. CRT monitors are difficult to find or buy because they’ve become legacy technology, or computing devices or peripherals that use techniques, parts, and methods from an earlier time that are no longer popular. Although legacy technology may still be functional, it is quickly being replaced by newer technological advances. Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays use organic compounds that produce light when exposed to an electric current. Unlike LCD and LED, OLED doesn’t require a backlight to function and therefore draw less power and have a much thinner display. They are also brighter and more environmentally friendly than LCD’s. Because of their lower power needs, OLED displays run longer on a single battery charge than do LED’s, which is why this technology is currently being used in small screens of mobile devices. - - How do LCD monitors work? Monitor screens are grids made up of millions of tiny dots, each of which is called a pixel. Illuminated pixels create the images ppl see on their monitors. Each pixel is actually composed of three subpixels of red, blue, and green. LCD monitors are made of two or more sheets of material filled with a liquid crystal solution. A fluorescent panel at the back of the LCD monitor generates light waves. When electric current passes through the liquid crystal solution, the crystals move around and either block the fluorescent light or let the light shine through. This blocking or passing of light by the crystals causes images to form on the screen. - - Factors that affect the quality of an LCD monitor: When choosing an LCD monitor, thee are several factors to consider, such as aspect ratio and resolution. The aspect ratio is the width-to- height proportion of a monitor. Traditionally, aspect ratios have been 4:3, but newer monitors are available with an aspect ratio of 16:9 or 16:10. The screen resolution reflects the number of pixels on the screen. An LCD monitor may have a native resolution of 1600 X 1200 meaning it contains 1600 vertical columns with 1200 pixels in each column. The higher the resolution, the sharper and clearer the image will be. You can change the resolution of an LCD monitor beyond its native resolution, but the images will become distorted. Other factors to consider with quality of an LCD are: - Contrast ratio: This is a measure of the difference in light intensity between the brightest white and the darkest black that the monitor can produce. If the contrast ratio is too low, colours tend to fade when you adjust the brightness to a high or low setting. A contrast ratio between 400:1 and 1000:1 is preferable. Some monitors may sport a dynamic contrast ratio that may be 10,000:1 or 50,000:1. This measurement is taken when the backlight is turned off completely; normal contrast ratio measurements have the backlight dimmed to its lowest setting but not completely off. In normal use, the backlight is not turned off, so the dynamic contrast ratio is not a relevant measure, unless one is using an LED monitor. - - Viewing angle: A measurement in degrees that tell how far you can move to the side of (or above or below) the monitor before the image quality degrades to unacceptable levels. For monitors that measure 17 inches or more, a viewing angle of at least 150 degrees is usually recommended. - Brightness: Measured as candelas per square meter, brightness is a measure of the greatest amount of light showing when the monitor is displaying pure white. A brightness level of 300 cd/m2 or greater is recommended. - Response time: This is the measurement (in milliseconds) of the time it takes for a pixel to change colour. A lower response time value means faster transitions; therefore moving images will appear less jerky on the monitor. - - Bigger screen size always better? The larger the panel, the larger number of pixels it can display. For example, a 27-inch monitor can display 2560 x 1440 pixels, while a 21.5 inch monitor may only be able to display 1680 x 1050 pixels. Larger screens can also allow you to view multiple documents or Web pages at the same time, creating the effect of using two separate monitors side by side. However, cost is an issue. Buying two smaller monitors might be cheaper than buying one large monitor. - - Other features to look for in an LCD monitor? Some monitors (especially notebooks) come with built-in features like speakers, webcams, and mics. A built-in multiformat card reader is convenient to display images directly on the monitor or to download pics quickly from a camera memory card to the PC. LCD monitors should also have a USB port. This enables one to connect extra peripherals easily w/o reaching around the back of the PC. If one wishes to connect a gaming console or DVD player, monitors with video ports is essential for easy access. - - How to show output to a large group of people? It is good to use a projector, a device that can project images from your screen onto a wall or viewing screen. Projectors are commonly used in business and educational settings like conference rooms. Some projectors (3M MPro 150) are small enough to fit in the palm of your hand. These would be ideal for business ppl that have to make presentations at client locations. Entertainment projectors, such as the Wonderwall, include stereo speakers and an array of multimedia connectors, making them a good option to use for in the home. If a laptop is equipped with an HDMI port, it can be connected directly to an HDTV. Although you could connect your laptop with a DVI port, by using HDMI, you only need the one cable, eliminating the need for additional audio cables. - How Touch Screens work: Touch-screen technology was developed in 1971, and used primarily with ATMs and fast-food order displays. Three basic systems are used to recognize a persons’ touch: resistive, capacitive, and surface acoustic wave. All of these systems require the basic components of a touch-responsive glass panel, controller, and software driver, combined with a display and a comp processor. The resistive system maps the exact location of the pressure point created when a user touches the screen. The capacitive system uses the change in the electrical charge on the glass panel of the monitor that is created by the user’s touch to generate a location. Surface acoustic wave system uses two transducers (electrical devices that convert energy from one form to another) that are placed along the x and y axes of the monitor’s glass plate. Reflectors, which are also placed on the glass, are used to reflect an electrical signal sent from the sending transducer to the receiving transducer. The receiving transducer determines whether the signal has been disturbed by a touch event and locates the touch instantly. With all three systems, the display’s software driver translates the touch into something the operating system can understand. - - Because the resistive system uses pressure to register a touch, it doesn’t matter if the touch is created by a finger or stylus. A capacitive system must have a conductive input, so a finger is required. The surface acoustic wave system allows touches by any object. iPhone introduced a feature with touchscreen’s called multi-touch. Many tablets and smartphones now have this feature and their screes have the capacitors arranged in a coordinate system so the circuitry can sense changes at each point along the grid. Consequently, every point when touched on the grid generates its own signal, and can do so even simultaneously as other signal is also being generated. The signals are then relayed to the device’s processor. This allows the device to determine the location and movement of simultaneous touches in multiple locations. - - What are the different types of printers? There are two primary categories of printers: inkjet and laser, both of which are considered nonimpact printers. A nonimpact printer sprays ink or uses laser beams to transfer marks onto paper. Most have totally replaced impact printers. An impact printer has tiny hammer keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon, making marks on the paper. The most common impact printer is the dot-matrix printer. The dot-matrix printer for most ppl is now only legacy technology. - - Advantages of inkjet printers? An inkjet printer is the standard printer found in most homes. They are affordable and produce high-quality colour printouts quickly and quietly. They spray tiny drops of ink onto paper and are great for printing black and white text as well as colour images. When loaded with the right paper, high-end inkjet printers can print images that look like professional-quality photos. One thing to consider when buying an inkjet is the type and cost of the ink cartridges the printer needs. Some printers used two cartridges: black and colour. Other printers use four or more cartridges, typically black,
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