Interpersonal Communication Chapter One.docx

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Environmental Design and Rural Development
EDRD 2020
Helen Hambly

Interpersonal Communication Chapter One: Communication and Competence What is Communication? Communicative chauvinism: the belief that everyone else thinks and acts as we do Definitions of Human Communication Communication is the discriminatory response of an organism to a stimulus Communication…is an “effort after meaning”, a creative act initiated by an individual in which one seeks to discriminate and organize cues so as to orient oneself in one’s environment and satisfy one’s changing needs Speech communication is a human process through which we make sense out of the world and share that sense with others Communication: the transmission of information, ideas, emotions, skills, etc. by the use of symbols Communication is a process by which a source transmits a message to a receiver through some channel Communication is a process, and not just reduced to a communications product such as magazine or a television program - Broad definitions, none that are right/wrong, how we interpret these definitions Characteristics of Communication Communication: the process whereby humans collectively create and regulate social reality Communication as a Process - Processes are moving, have no beginning and no end, and constantly changing - Communication process is like a river (flowing, active, continuous) - To understand communication we have to look at how what we do and say is connected to what others do and say - Communication is an ongoing process Communication as Uniquely Human - Humans communicate in a unique and powerful way; differently from other animals - Only people use language naturally and spontaneously, giving us flexibility and creativity Communication as Collective Activity - The relationship between human society and human communication is circular; one could not exist without the other - Communication comes from munia, meaning service and connoting “mutual help, exchange and interaction of those belonging to the same community” Communication as a Creative Endeavour - Communication leads to creativity Communication as Regulatory - Through communication we can act on our world - Communication is a powerful regulator of action; through communication we can persuade, dissuade, anger, hurt, comfort, soothe, entertain or bore one another Summary and Implications Four main implications: 1. Through communication we create our own reality - People with different communication experiences will see the world in different ways 2. Too often, we allow what we have created through communication to control us 3. Communication always takes place in a cultural context - Face: an approved social identity, what we present to others for their approval - Communication that is incongruent with face will be judged as socially unacceptable 4. What is important in interpersonal communication is what people do when they are together, not what each does separately. A Model of Communicative Competence Communicative competence: ability to communicate in a personally effective and socially appropriate manner - Has two different levels: 1) the surface level, consisting of the part of competence that can be seen- the actual performance of day to day behaviors 2) a deeper level, consisting of everything we have to know in order to perform - Surface level is called: performative competence (demonstrated every time someone actually produces effective and appropriate communication behaviours) - The underlying level is called process competence (all the cognitive activity and knowledge necessary to generate adequate performance) Individual Knowledge and Communicative Competence People who wish to be competent communicators know how to do 5 things well: 1. Assign meanings to the world around them 2. Set goals strategically 3. Take on social roles appropriately 4. Present a valued image of themselves to the world 5. Generate intelligible messages Implicit knowledge: knowledge we don’t stop to think about, that we use unconsciously to guide our behaviour (i.e. grammatical knowledge) See page 9 for process model of communicative competence 5 types of competences: 1) Message Competence (a process of coding) “the abil
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