Learning Objectives andAnswers for Geology
Professor stated that if we answered all the questions in the learning objectives in the
course manual we would be ready for the Exam
1. Name the planets of our solar system and be able to discuss their relative
positions and general features
- Mercury –orbits sun once every 88 days, rotates slowly once every 59 days.
Small, gray to orange in color, covered with craters
- Venus – 243 days to complete one rotation, about the same size as earth, very
thick atmosphere, composed largely of Sulphuric acid and CO2.Atmosphere
traps heat making the surface of Venus the hottest in the solar system.
Brownish yellow color
- Earth – liquid water on its surface, maintains life, has active plate movement.
Rotates every 24 hours and revolves around the sun every 365 days. Has one
- Mars – half the size of earth, 687 days to revolve around the sun, rotates about
the same speed as earth. Very thin atmosphere, which is compromised of
mostly CO2. Surface is very cold and is covered with craters, volcanoes and
large canyons. Reddish in color. Two small moons.
- Jupiter – largest planet in the solar system, orbits sun once every 12 years.
Rotates very fast (10 hours). Made up of gas, broken into bands or white,
yellow, red, and brown clouds. 63 satellites and four large moons
- Saturn – composed mostly of gas, rings, and orbits sun every 12 years and
rotates 10hours. Brown yellow butterscotch color
- Uranus – revolves around the sun slowly 84 years to complete one orbit.
Thick layers of gas, has a fairly uniform blue-green color. Rings, rotates on its
- Neptune – blue, storm systems, five rings and 13 moons.
- Pluto – Dwarf planet, very cold, arguably not a planet
2. Describe how we experience the Doppler effect in everyday life, and discuss
what this phenomenon can tell us about the origin of the universe
- When a train passes and moves away from us, the sound of the whistle
becomes abruptly lower pitched. The sound waves are stretches from the
perspective of the listener. Longer wave length lower pitch, shorter
wavelength higher pitch.
- Evidence for the big bang can be seen in the visible light from objects of our
universe. Distant objects appear redder than those closer to us because they
are moving away from us faster.Any explosion causes the material around the
edges of the explosion to move outward faster than those at the center. Red
light has a longer wavelength than other colors and since waves appear
stretched, or elongated when we look at distant galaxies we know they are
moving away from us faster than those closer to us. Red wavelengths are
longest and therefor galaxies that are red are farther away