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ENVS 2210 (46)
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Bee Unit 04 Summary.docx

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Department
Environmental Sciences
Course
ENVS 2210
Professor
Ernesto Guzman
Semester
Winter

Description
UNIT 04: Growing Up to Be a Bee Holometabolous insects go through 4 main life stages: 1) Egg  embryo develops and hatches into nondescript larva that is a feeding machine 2) Larva  white, maggot-like larvae put on weight at stupendous rate  then stop eating and major changes start to unfold  larva pupates 3) Pupa  larva metamorphoses into adult bee  metamorphosis is quicker for queen, slower for worker and slowest for drone 4) Adult  Hormones control transformations in life of insects o Hormones keep larvae young o Hormones signal exoskeleton to dissolve itself and regrow so insects can get bigger and change shape in metamorphosis CHAPTER 12 – From Egg to Adult  Queen is only individual who normally lays eggs in a colony of honeybees o Queen inserts abdomen into cells of comb and deposits one egg on bottom of cell o To fertilize egg, queen liberates few sperm from her spermatheca (sperm are minute) o On egg, sperm finds a way to micropyle, minute hole tough and protective of chorion o One sperm navigates micropyle, penetrates thin vitelline membrane and reach egg nucleus, floating in yolk to bring fertilization o Nuclei move to the periphery of egg, under vitelline membrane, whether they become arranged in layer of cells, blastoderm o Cells on convex side (underbelly) of egg become larger and layer starts to fold inwards as embryo starts to become recognizable  After 3 days as egg, embryo shows head, buds for mouthparts and antennae (and spiracles) o Over next 6 days, larva grows 1500 times in weight (14 segments) o During next period, it goes through 5 larval stages o Interior is full of ventriculus  intestine exists through anus  body cavity contains haemolymph and fat body o only purpose of larva is eating and growing  fed and tended by workers  after 6 days, larva occupies entire cell and stops feeding o spins cocoon of silk secreted by the silk glands o larva starts to metamorphose within old larval cuticle, within silken cocoon o start of pupal stage  after 12 days as pupa, worker bee is ready to emerge (eclose) o adult bee breaks out of larval cuticle and chews its way out of its cocoon and through capping to emerge as callow o must wait few days for new cuticle to tan and harden before she can fly or sting FIGURE 12.4  holometbolism: form of insect development from egg to larva to pupa to adult Queen Workers Drone Egg stage 3 days 3 days 3 days Larval stage 5.5 days 6 days 6.5 days Pupal stage 7.5 days 12 days 14.5 days Total dvpmt time 16 days 21 days 24 days TABLE 12-1 CHAPTER 13 – Nutrition  heterotrophic: rely largely on organic sources for the minerals they need – depend on organic carbon sources for energy, and organic nitrogen and sulphur sources for proteins and body building  honeybees are herbivorous heterotrophs  attain nutrition from plants, mostly flowers, as nectar and pollen o pollen contains:  25% protein  10% free amino acids  25% carbohydrates  Remaining % is made up of lipids, enzymes, co-enzymes, pigments, vitamins, sterols and minerals o Each pollen grain is multicellular microgametophyte and mobile component of sexual reproduction in plants  Nectar- mostly sugary liquid or syrup  transformed into honey which is mostly sugar – fuel for activity 10 amino acids essential for honeybee growth: 1) Arginine 2) Histidine 3) Lysine 4) Tryptophan 5) Phenyalanine 6) Methionine 7) Threonine 8) Leucine 9) Isoleucine 10) Valine  Honeybees require vitamins  many coenzymes important in metabolism and interaction with enzymes, contain vitamins as part of their molecular structure  pollen is crucial as it is rich in vitamins  Brood food/royal jelly  produced by hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young nurse bees  All larval bees fed royal jelly, but duration of feeding with rich food is important in determining caste of adult bee Rate of food intake probably regulates activity of the corpora allata High levels of juvenile hormone in body of developing larva induces differentiation into queen  Progressive provisioners: continually provide their brood with food (ex. honeybees and bumblebees)  Mass provisioners: provide their larval with all food that is needed for growth from egg to adulthood at time egg is laid (ex. stingless bees only) CHAPTER 14 – Raging Hormones  Hormones: chemicals in animals and plants that regulate bodily processes such as gr
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