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Environmental Sciences
ENVS 2210
Ernesto Guzman

ENVS Unit 02 Pages 33-47 - Bee internal organs are similar to those of most insects and do same bodily functions as humans - Digestive tractfrom mouth to anus (which is the tip of the abdomen) o Honey stomachextensible bladder for harvesting nectar, anterior (frontal) part of abdomen o Main digestive part of the gut called ventriculus occupies interior of abdomen, and is linked to intestine ends o Malipighian tubules float through the blood (haemolymph) and cleans up chemical waste products of metabolism  Tubules pass waste to anterior intestine, and passes indigestible remains of food to rectum and out through anus  Lol the honeybees rectum can hold a lot, like a winters worth of waste at once - *Bees do not store nutrients within their bodies, fat is important in wax secretion, in making eggs, and as stored energy - Circulatory systemno real veins or arteries, just a single pulsing tube (heart) this is on top of abdomen. Blood enters tube through special valves and is pumped forward through thorax and into head in dorsal aorta o Haemolymph gushes out to bathe the brain and other organs in the head, head gets richest and cleanest blood b/c haemolymph is cleansed by Malipighian tubules - Glandular system= dispersed throughout the body o Exocrine glands secrete outside the body and have functions: produce bees wax, and chemicals that signal to other bees o Endocrine secretions (inside the body), regulate growth, dev, metabolism, water balance, activity Chapter II-5: Processing Food and Waste - Mouthparts make tube for sucking up liquids/processing solid food - Complex pre-oral cavity receives food from food canal - Mouth is closed when sucking pump is activated and food is pumped into esophagus that goes from head to thorax - One set of salivary glands in head and one set in the thorax both share common duct that sends saliva into buccal activity where it mixes with food to dilute, soften and lubricate it as its ingested - Honey stomach in anterior part of abdomen proper o Highly folded when empty, can store nectar and honey o Max capacity is 70-80 mg of nectar and accounts for 85% weight of ind worker bee - Proventriculus is short muscular organ that is like a valve and regulates flow of material from esophagus and honey stomach to the ventriculus (the main digestive organ) (35) - Food entering proventriculus gets surrounded by thin peritrophic membrane, that is said to protect the ventricular wall from the enzymes of digestions o Epithelial cells secrete enzymes from digestions and absorption o Outside the epithelial layer or cellular muscles that are covered by longitudinal muscles, that allow for contraction and expansion of ventricles and pumping action that digests food and gets rid of waste - Anterior intestine is tube at end of ventriculus and food waste is pumped into it, the intestine then expands into the rectum o Water from accumulated waste may be absorbed by rectal glands - Cleansing flights in the spring to get rid of winter waste, mass defecation in giant honeybee of tropical Asia - Excretion in insects occurs in Malipighian tubules that are similar to kidneys o Discharges waste when ventriculus and anterior intestine join Chapter II-6: Circulating Nutrients - Insect blood = mostly clear, yellowish, doesn’t transport oxygen like ours does BUT its important in transporting water soluble carbon dioxide as waste product of respiration o Haemolymph that is made of liquid plasma where suspended haemocytes cells are suspended  Important in phagocytosis (ingesting foreign particles) and act like human white blood cells - Insect circulatory system= all open so there are no veins, arteries or capillaries, haemolymph is responsible for bathing all organs and muscles of insect body - Single dorsal blood vessel in insects, tubular heart that has 5 pairs of slits (ostia) that pulses by muscular contractions and relaxations (39) - Vessel passes through the neck and into the head where the haemolymph gushes out - Ventral diaphragm = muscle gland beating causes haemolymph to flow backwards, bathes all organs and then absorbs nutrients passing from digestive system by diffusion o So, the
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