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ENVS Unit 05.docx

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University of Guelph
Environmental Sciences
ENVS 2210
Ernesto Guzman

ENVS UNIT-05 pg. 101-154, Coordinated Life in the Hive - Honeybees and stingless bees cannot fulfill life outside the colony - Queen rules b/c of chemical force, pheromones that influence genetic expression and beh - Body lang through dance communicationoptimal foraging - Colony is own biological central heating and air conditioning unit Dance Communication - Communication is action where one animal influences another animal, message o Visual: colour, posture, shape, timing o Sound: limited o Chemical: infochemicals, produced by one and influence another - Nonchemical communication in eusocial beesdance language - Maurice Maeterlinck awarded Nobel prize for “Vie de Abeilles” - Karl Ritter von Frisch shared Nobel prize in medicine about dance lang in 1923 o 3 types of bee dances o Food location dance fall into 3 categories  Round dance performed when source of food is close to hive  Transitional dance  Waggle dance (waggle abdomens from side to side) when making run btwn two loops of dance Round Dance Distance to Food Source Apis mellifera ligustica < 8 m away - Dance for several Apis mellifera caucasia < 14 m away seconds to a minute Apis mellifera carnica < 16 m away in one spot before moving to another spot on the hive - Indicate quality of food by liveliness of dance Transitional Dance Ca. 10-100 m away - Sickle/crescent dance - Direction to source indicated by imaginary line that bisects the two arms of the dance Waggle Dance > 90m away - Communicate distance and direction, and quality - Distance info is in tempo - Directionorientation of straight run - More energy used must be used in round trip and more important directionality is - Direction indicated by direction of sun - Directions to locations of forage indicated by angular deviations - Quality and profitability of sources expressed by number, vigor, and duration of dances - Smell of flowers also returns to hive and the time of day - Dialects of waggle dance - Dance lang accompanied by acoustical/sonic communication o Forager beats wings during dance and those sounds are audible to bees through air - Honeybees don’t always follow instructions of the dance o Foragers from hive that was open changed their attention from originally open single feeding station, so researchers thought dance lang wasn’t being used - Ways honeybees navigate, orientate, measure distance are parts of fulfillment of foraging o Sun compass of orientation o Visual and olfactory landmarks o Honeybees able to measure distance - Amount of effort expanded and outbound flight estimates distance (pg.112) - Optical cues used to measure distance - Optical flow theory optical flow with stereopsis would allow bees to maintain altitude in flight - Dorsal ventral vibrating danceDVAV, vibrate abdomen up and down can regulate foraging, synchronize swarming, stimulate nuptial flights - Bussing runperformed by worker as swarm about to leave hive o Intensity of buzzing increase, workers stimulated to join - Tremble dancestim to take forage, return to hive, store it, - When returned forager about to start dancing, workers in vicinity are jostled and pushed aside o Jostling alerts workers to incoming news o Workers shake themselves Chemical Communication, Pheromones, and the Queen’s Rule - Semiochemicalssignal chemicals involved in beh and physiological interactions btwn organisms (infochemicals) o Kairomones benefit receiver o Allomones benefit emitter  Ex. Spray of skunk o Synomonesbenefit both emitter and receiver  Ex. Floral scents - Pheromones used in same species: intraspecific communication, bees at least 36 pheromones - Pheromones emitted by special glands and receipted by smell so hard to study b/c such small amounts o Tested w/ bioassayto determine role in eliciting specific behaviour - Two types pheromones: releaser and primer o Releaser trigger immediate response by receiving individuals o Primer pheromones prime receiver ind to exhibit an altered beh activity at some future time - Work-produced releaser (recognition pheromones) of Nasonov secretion is blend of chemicals - Pheromone chart (117) - Orientation pheromones like footprint are less well understood, left by bumblebees on flowers to mark flower as having been visited and the resources that are now gone - Alarm pheromones complex chemical blend, very young workers font respond much to it - Main pheromone produced by queen is Queen mandibular pheromone (QMP), blend of five chemicals o Function of 9-ODA and 9-HAD was to suppress queen rearing in colony  Acted as primer pheromone in inhibiting dev of workers ovaries  Attractive to drones so important in mating, also tergal gland chemicals - Chemicals diffuse through a colony o Messenger (worker) receives pheromone from queen and may touch the queen thus becoming carrier of pheromone, transferred to brood - Model of pheromone transmission within colony (122) - Dufour’s gland and its secretion = mystery o Allows worker to distinguish btwn queen eggs and worker eggs - Drone pheromones not studied - Brood odours: stimulate nurse workers to provide food, stimulate foraging in older workers, suppress ovarian dev in workers - Kin Selection recognition pheromones - QMP can be made synthetically to include 5 chemicals in correct proportions o Used to attract workers to pollinate certain crops - Nasonov pheromones can be used to trap swarms Foraging Efficiently for Food - Bees forage for rewards of flowers’ nectar and pollen, honeydew - European races of Western honeybee, foraging takes place during daylight only o Temp reaches 12-14 degrees C and light intensity is greater than .66 Langley’s o Nectars of some flowers may evaporate to crystals in hot dry weather o Strong winds and heavy rainfall inhibit foraging - Animals that forage called central place foragers (ex. Denning animals, nesting birds, nesting insects like bees) o Optimal foraging is maximizing intake of gathering while minimizing expenditure to energy and risk of catastrophe - Median foraging radius depends on enviro o Agricultural areas, rangefew hundred metres to 3.7 km o Forested and desert areas rangegreater and exceed 6 km - Constraints on foraging distance and dance communication have implications for beekeeping o Large number hives in one place would make bees have to go farther to forage - Foraging patterns (127) - Once a foraging bee is foraging at an array of lowers on a plant, becomes more efficient o Start low work upwards o Energetic point of view short scrambling w/ some flight while ascending requires less energy than would a steep ascending flight btwn flowers o Ease and accuracy of landing - Learning is part of bees life, can learn physical and chemical components of landscape that they forage o Bees have innate response to certain stimuli o Learning = trial and error o Honeybees trained to associated obtaining a reward w/ task that requires learning - Laverty awesome experiments showing capacities of bumblebees to learn to manipulate flowers o Worker bees manipulate simple flowers and obtain reward WITHOUT PRACTICE - Four assumptions about optimal foraging applying to evolutionary ecology and practical beekeeping 1) Individuals contribution to next generation “Darwinian fitness” should be enhanced more efficient foraging and m
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