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University of Guelph
Environmental Sciences
ENVS 2210
Ernesto Guzman

Problems in the Bee Yard: 253-267 - Honey bees suffer from five P’s: o Pathogens that cause diseases o Parasites o Pests o Predators o Poisons - Colony collapse disorder causes maj losses - Integrated pest managements (IPM) can assure health of honeybees Diseases of the Brood - American Foul Brood (AFB) o Bacterial disease caused by Bacillus larvae, the spores can survive for years o Spores are all over the wax, tools, honey, adult bees, and its hard to control and will destroy colony o Can be a bit controlled with antibiotics  Oxyetracycline HCI is administered to colonies of hives o Infected hives smell bad, uneven brood pattern o Dead larvae and pupae rot, corpses are gluey and stick to ta toothpick o Official notification must be made to apiarist, and then inspectors with visit, burn colonies to bring disease under control o Antibiotic-resistant AFB reported in any places and it’s a serious problem if not controlled - European Foul Brood o Less serious o Similar symptoms to American like sunken and discoloured, greasy- looking capping’s and nasty smell o Larvae dead of EFB are twisted w/ heads raised o Scales more easily removed o Ropiness test doesn’t produced stringy material adhering to toothpick but leaves a moist residue o Caused by bacterium Melissocossus pluton which makes its presence known in mid-late spring, moves from colony to colony weakens colonies but doesn’t kill them directly o Oxyetracycline HCI administered either w/ dry syrup or icing sugar - Powdery scale disease is rare but caused by bacteria - Sacbrood o Most viral disease of larvae, infected larvae become sack-like o Can be removed from cob o Dead larvae have darkened heads and corpses scattered through brood pattern o Spring to early summer it occurs and its not a serious disease in colonies of Apis mellifera - Equivalent disease of A. cerana was detected in Thailand 1976 and spread to India, and then Nepal, India, Pakistan o 80-90% colonies perished - Fungi cause diseases o Genus Ascosphaera attacks many insects and infects larval honeybees causing chalk brood o Hardened mummies/infected larvae and look like small pieces of white chalk, occurs 3-4 days after hatching from egg o Has two mating strains so when both a present then spore cyst can form thus a dirty grey appearance o A strong colony of honeybees will destroy the disease on its own - Stonebrood o Fungus ailment of larval and adult honeybees, mummies are yellowy- green - Varroa mites o Parasitic mites that infect larvae, pupae, and adults Diseases of Adult Honeybees - Microscopic examinations necessary for diagnosis of most diseases and parasites in adult honeybees - Varroatosis visible to naked eye - Viruses cause dieases in adult honeybees - Sacbrood virus and black queen-cell virus infect immature bees - Viral infections widespread, cant be cured by drugs or treatment - Nosema disease o Widespread in adult bees, caused by Nosema apis which develops within epithelial cells of ventriculus midgut of adult bees o Basically, it is transmitted through feces so when young bees clean the comb they ingest it and it gets digested, will spore and the whole intestinal content becomes infective once defecation occurs o Crawling bees with distended abdomen and dislocated wings, bees unable to sting o Weakens and kills bees, stop producing royal jelly o Soiling front of hive causes the disease to spread even more o Treated w/ fumagillin, more prevalent in spring - Other less important infections page 260 - Acarine disease (acariosis) caused by infection of adult honeybees by tracheal mites o Tracheal mites infects large trachea of thorax o Mites reproduce and block trachea, feeding h
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