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ENVS 2210 (46)
Chapter

Chapter Summaries for Bees Biology and Management ENVS 2210

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Department
Environmental Sciences
Course
ENVS 2210
Professor
Ernesto Guzman
Semester
Winter

Description
-­‐ the  proximity  of  these  organs  to  the  brain  provides  for  almost  immediate  processing  of  sensory   info  and  reactions  on  the  part  of  the  animal   -­‐ note  diagram  on  page  11  (heads  of  3  castes  of  honeybees)   -­‐ workers  have  longest  mouthparts   -­‐ drones  have  largest  compound  eyes  and  longest  antennae   -­‐ queen’s  compound  eyes  are  slightly  smaller  relative  to  body  size   -­‐ compound  eyes:  function  as  photoreceptors  and  are  main  organs  for  detection  of   colour/shape/movement   -­‐ ocelli:  3  smaller  light  sensors  on  top  of  head   -­‐ antennae:  function  in  both  chemical  and  tactile  modes  (also  involved  in  auditory  perception)   -­‐ mouthparts  are  highly  sensitive  to  chemical  stimulation  (taste)   -­‐ ommatidia:  cluster  of  photoreceptors  that  make  up  compound  eyes  (4-­5000  per  compound  eye   in  worker,  3-­‐4000  in  queen,  7-­‐8000  in  drone)   -­‐ ommatidia  function  in  light  sensing  and  gathering   -­‐ light  enters  each  facet  through  corneal  lens  into  cone  lens  to  be  focused  onto  retinula  cells     -­‐ retinula  cells  stimulate  and  generate  nervous  impulsers  to  the  brain   -­‐ each  facet  may  be  involved  in  one  or  all  4  main  tasks  in  sensing  optical  information   -­‐ 1.    perceiving  the  plane  of  polarized  light   -­‐ 2.  recognizing  patterns   -­‐ 3.  detecting  motion   -­‐ 4.  seeing  colour  –  UV  is  a  primary  colour  to  insects,  along  with  blue-­‐green  (most  insects  cannot   see  red  –  red  is  black  to  insects)   -­‐ ocelli:  located  between  compound  eyes,  function  as  photoreceptors  and  secondary  organs  for   sensitivity  to  light  (detect  only  light  intensity  not  image),  respond  to  dim  light  which  compound   eyes  cannot   -­‐ antennae  (feelers):  segmented/freely  moving     -­‐ 3  major  regions:   -­‐ scape  (scapus)  first  apparent  segment  that  attaches  antenna  to  insect  head   -­‐ pedicel  (pedicellus)  second  apparent  segment     -­‐ remaining  segments  which  compose  flagellum:  10  segments  on  the  worker  and  queen,  11  on   the  drone   -­‐ antennae  are  multi-­‐purpose  appendages:     -­‐ used  as  chemoreceptors  -­‐  can  sense  chemicals  in  the  air  or  on  the  surface,  determine   temperature  around  them,  detect  CO2  concentrations  and  even  humidity   -­‐ used  as  mechanoreceptors  –  hairs  measure  position  of  antennae  relative  to  head  and  position  of   pedicel  relative  to  scape,  used  for  touch/sensing  texture  and  smell   -­‐ used  as  auditory  sensors  –  Johnston’s  organ  (bee’s  ear)  –  composed  of  a  ring  of   mechanosensory  cells  (scolopidia)  that  sense  movement  of  the  intersegmental  membrane   between  the  pedicel  and  flagellum   -­‐ movement  of  this  membrane  is  induced  by  sound  waves  deflecting  the  flagellum     -­‐ mouthparts:  complex  array  of  appendages  including  organs  for  ingestion  of  food,  chewing  and   chemoreception     -­‐ mandibles:  jaws  of  the  mouthparts   -­‐ proboscis:  two-­‐way  feeding  and  tasting  straw  between  the  bases  of  the  paired  maxilla  and   labium     -­‐ fossa:  the  groove  under  the  head  where  the  proboscis  is  folded  and  tucked  into  when  not  in  use   -­‐ note  diagram  on  page  14  (mandibles)   -­‐ mandibles  are  largest  in  queen,  most  specialized  in  worker  (wax  manipulation,  feeding  on   pollen,  grasping  other  bees’  mouthparts  etc),  least  developed  in  drones   -­‐ maxilla:  behind  mandibles  
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